Entropy: Quantum Gravity: Cosmology Constant

Section one: Quantum gravity

Gravity is all about mass. But, masses are carried by fermions, the quantum particles.

So, any gravity theory which is not based on particle theory is not correct, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/03/16/nothingness-vs-nothing-there-the-quantum-gravity/ .

Most of mainstream ‘quantum gravity’ theories try to quantize the GR (General Relativity) spacetime sheet in one way or another (discrete space or time, fixed coupling constants, etc.), such as those theories below.

Loop Quantum Gravity: space itself is discrete

Asymptotically Safe Gravity: pick a high-energy fixed point for the coupling constant

Causal Dynamical Triangulations: It’s similar to LQG in that space itself is discrete, but time must be discrete as well!

On the other hand, the M-string quantum gravity does describe the spacetime sheet with particles (the M-strings). But, the M-string itself does not have a ‘mass-rising’ mechanism of its own but borrows the {Higgs Nonsense} which is a total bullcrap, see https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/before-lhc-run-2-begins-enough-jeh-tween-gong ; that is, M-string quantum gravity is just a hallow hype.

Gravity is all about moving the ‘entire universe’ from {[HERE (now), NOW] to [HERE (next), Next]}, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html . This accelerates the expansion of universe and gives rise to the ‘uncertainty principle’.

Yet, this ‘arrow of time’ is the result of {nothing to something transformation} process, the answer for {why is there something rather than nothing?}

The {Nothingness} is defined as {timelessness and immutability}.

The timelessness is expressed with 4-real/ghost time dimensions (time-hose).

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That is, at every t, it is in fact timelessness in essence. And, this is expressed with an equation ‘zero’.

Delta S = (i^n1, i^n2, i^3) C delta T, {C, light speed; S, space; T, time; n1, n2, n3 take the value (0, 1, 2, 3)} … equation ‘zero’

With this equation, 64 subspaces are created; 48 are particles (fermions), and 16 are spacetime (dark energy), see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/48-exact-number-for-number-of.html and https://medium.com/@Tienzen/here-is-the-correct-answer-5d1a392f700#.a0jmn237w .

The moving of this 4-real/ghost time dimensions (time-hose) forms a {garden hose} as below.

This {garden hose} universe has eleven (11) dimensions:

One, the external (of time hose) space dimensions (3)

Two, the internal (of time hose) space dimensions (3)

Three, the time (hose, itself) dimension (1)

Four, the universal SPACE dimensions (3)

Five, the ‘nothingness’ which surrounds the entire {garden hose) is (1)

So, the total = 3 + 3 + 1 + 3 + 1 = 11

Although there are spatial dimensions, the definition for the dimensions here is a ‘linguistic’ definition, the ‘codes’ which are needed to describe a system (such as universe), see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/origin-of-spatial-dimensions-and.html . That is, 11 codes are enough to DESCRIBE this universe: 4-spacetime dimension and 7 color-codes (Red, Yellow, Blue, White, G1, G2, G3). It is the same for the {life universe}: (A, G, T, C, M (male), F (female), K (kids)).

With the {framework} being set up, the next is to set up the measuring rulers {ħ (Planck constant), C (light speed)}.

Then these rulers must be locked up: e (electric charge) = F (ħ, C), the first lock.

A second lock is need: Alpha = F (e, ħ, C)

With these two locks and the fixed framework, this universe is set FREE for its evolution, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/arbitrariness-and-final-unification-in.html .

Of course, the litmus test for the above is that the nature constants and parameters must be derived from the above scheme.

Cabibbo and Weinberg angles, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/10/theoretical-calculation-of-cabibbo-and.html

Alpha calculation, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-fine-structure-constant-mystery.html .

For Planck CMB data, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/

The Mass and Spin rising for Fermions:

Section two: about entropy

Entropy was initially defined as a macro-thermo-phenomena, as lack of order or predictability; gradual decline into disorder with the following equation, with the dimension of energy divided by temperature, which has a unit of joules per kelvin (J K−1).

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In the modern microscopic interpretation of entropy in statistical mechanics, entropy is the amount of additional information needed to specify the exact physical state of a system, given its thermodynamic specification. Understanding the role of thermodynamic entropy in various processes requires an understanding of how and why that information changes as the system evolves from its initial to its final condition. Again, it is often said that entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, or of our lack of information about it.

This statistical entropy is expressed as Boltzmann’s entropy equation (S = k log W), and the ‘S’ is an irreducible essence of any large ‘system’. Then, the concept of entropy is spreading into many (almost all) systems, especially the ‘information’ system. Again, it is all about the inherent tendency of any system towards the dissipation of useful energy or information.

So, entropy is thus far a phenomenological parameter without a deep connections to the other fundamental laws of physics (SM particles theory and gravity). Yet, very recently, there is a ‘quantum gravity’ which is based on entropy: the  entropic gravity (EG), which views that gravity was not a fundamental force, but rather emerged as a phenomenon linked to entropy. Unfortunately, those EG physicists still view the entropy with the above phenomenological sense, not knowing the true ‘essence’ of entropy. Thus, there is no chance for EG to success.

For constructing any system (a universe or else), it needs three departments.

D-one, the big framework: the 11 dimensions, the nothing to something transformation.

D-two, the locked measuring rulers.

D-three, a bookkeeper.

Entropy is the result of the bookkeeping.

This bookkeeping is all about the ‘action count’.

State one, a particle is at location (1), no action

State two, that particle moves to location (2), action one (1)

State three, that particle moves back to location (1), action (2)

State one and state three have the identical ‘physical’ states, but the action count for them is different. And, the count is an arrow, always in the increase, a true arrow. In a big system (especially a thermo-system), the measurement of the action count (entropy) is described with the Boltzmann’s entropy equation.

So, the arrow of time and the arrow of entropy are totally different arrows.

But, but, but, when a Pepsi can sits on my desk without any movement in the past 10 years, is there any action count for it? The answer is big YES in this G-string quantum gravity, as it is in fact moving in ‘time’, and every movement is an action. So, many people is confusing about that the two arrows are the same arrow. No, they are completely different arrows.

One, arrow of ‘time’: an emergent of the ‘timelessness’.

Two, arrow of ‘entropy’: the ever increasing the action count.

In the example above (from state one to state three), it gained nothing but still paid with higher action count. Phenomenologically, this is viewed as ‘dissipation’, and thus the entropy has not much to do with the fundamental laws of physics.

On the other hand, the TOTAL action count of this universe defines the STATUS of this universe. So, this {TOTAL COUNT} must be the most important number in the BOOK of this universe.

How can we calculate this {TOTAL COUNT}?

In the G-string quantum gravity, the universe moves {from [here (now), now] to [here (next), next]} with quantum action {ħ}, and each action is one {quantum information}, the quantum-bit.

Then, the largest unit of this quantum information is {ħ C} in one unit of time.

Finally, the NUMBER of quantum ACTIONs per time-dimension in a unit of time is {1/ (ħ C)}.

So, the {TOATL quantum action COUNT} of this universe {(TC) = {1/ (ħ C)} ^4 x T};

T, life time of universe; there are 4-time-dimensions.

So, TC = {1/ (ħ C) ^4} x T = 4.34/9.714 x 10^103 x 10^17

= 0.446 x 10 ^ 120

Planck’s constant   ħ = 1.0545718 × 10-34 m2 kg / s

The speed of light = 299 792 458 m / s = 2.99 x 10 ^ 8 m/s

So, (ħ C) ^ 4 = {(1.05 x 2.99) x (10 ^ (-34 + 8))} ^4 = 97.14 x 10 ^ (-104) = 9.714 x 10 (-103)

T (life time of universe, 13.799±0.021 billion years) = 4.34 x 10 ^17 s (second)

This universe thus far should have a {TOATL quantum action COUNT, (TC)} in an order of 10^120. Note: if we choose h over ħ,  TC ~ 10 ^ 123.

Selection three: Cosmological Constant

Cosmology constant (Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space. A positive vacuum energy density resulting from a cosmological constant implies a negative pressure, and vice versa. In terms of Planck units, and as a natural dimensionless value, the cosmological constant, λ, is on the order of 10^−120 or 10^−122.

Thus far, the Cosmology constant (Λ) is a phenomenological parameter without a theoretical meaning, although it was ad hoc defined in the GR equation. Again, it cannot be derived with any mainstream quantum gravity theories. M-string theory cannot even determine its sign (being positive or negative).

In this G-string quantum gravity, Cosmology constant (Λ) is defined as the ‘SHARE’ per quantum action.

So, Cosmology constant (Λ) = {1/ (TOATL quantum action COUNT)}

= {1/( [1/ (ħ C) ^4] x T)}

= {1/0.446 x 10 ^ 120}

= 2.242 x 10^-120

In h-unit, Cosmology constant (Λ) ~ 3 x 10^−123

Section four: Conclusion

Now, quantum gravity, entropy and Cosmology constant (Λ) are linked together.

One, Quantum gravity: moving this universe from {[here (now), now] to [here (next), next]} with a quantum action ħ.

Two, the total quantum action count is manifested as entropy.

Three, the Cosmology constant (Λ) is the SHARE per quantum action in this quantum gravity.

Note (added on September 12, 2016): How can the cosmological constant be so close to zero but not zero?

Answered by Ed Witten: {I really don’t know. It’s very perplexing that astronomical observations seem to show that there is a cosmological constant. It’s definitely the most troublesome, for my interests, definitely the most troublesome, observation in physics in my lifetime. In my career that is. See http://www.superstringtheory.com/people/witten.html }.

A fair assessment on M-string theory for layman is available here, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/09/11/the-era-of-hope-or-total-bullcrap/

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