Comment on Adam Riess’ talk

at the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre Center on May 11, 2017

Two major data from Planck mission are:

P1, Planck CMB data (DE=69.22 % 、D=25.90 % 、V=4.86 %)

P2, H0 (Hubble Constant, based on CMB, void of matter, pure energy, the early universe, with Neff = 3) = 66.93 ± 0.62 km s−1 Mpc−1

On the other hand,

The Local Value of the H0 {Hubble Constant, with (30% of matter/70% of energy), now, later universe} = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s−1 Mpc−1

Riess’s key conclusion is {If not an error, could be a vital clue pertaining to the 95% of the Universe (i.e., the dark sector) we don’t understand.}

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It was predicted (about 4 years ago) that a 9% dark flow must be the direct consequence in the {matter (30%)/energy (70%)} universe in comparison to the {energy (100%) CMB} universe. For the P1 calculation, see two graphs below.

 

 

 

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This is the most important PREDICTION of modern physics/cosmology that there should be a DARK FLOW of 9% (transferring energy from MASS to DARK ENERGY), which accelerates the expansion of this universe. And, this prediction is verified by ADAM RIESS’ data.

Finally, the BEGINNING must also determine the END. The END of this universe is determined by the parameter of Ω, mass/energy density of the universe.

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This Ω is not a constant but is an EVOLUTION (dynamic) parameter. The only way to calculate this Ω is via the DARK FLOW.

When W = 100%, there is no dark mass (matter) in this universe. The entire universe is 100% energy. The universe expands SIMILAR to inflation.

When W = 0%, the mass has reached its peak, and the Ω can go over 1 (Ω > 1). The universe begins to contract, going to the big crunch.

When W > 0%, the universe expands with acceleration. Now, the W = 9%.

By knowing how to calculate Ω, we can evaluate the possible fates of this universe.

There is no connection (logical, causal or even non-causal) of any kind between the BEGINNING (Big Bang or else) to the END of (ripping the space-time or eternal darkness).

On the other hand, the Big Crunch naturally connects to the Big Bang. More details about this {beginning/end} issue, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2017/05/13/the-end-of-the-inflation-war/

In G-theory, the Cyclic multiverse expands exponentially (a x 2 ^ N), a is the initial condition which is set = 1, and N is the number of bounces.

The TQA (total quantum actions of THIS universe at the Big Bang) = (a x 2 ^ N) = [1/CC (3 x 10^-122)]/T, T (life time of this universe) = 4.34 x 10 ^ 17 (seconds). CC is the Cosmology constant.

Thus, TQA = 7.6 x 10 ^ 103; N = 345

Pre-this-Big Bang, the universe has bounced at least 345 times. This pre-big bang bounces will very much look like the ‘inflation’.

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The detailed calculation, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/12/10/natures-manifesto-on-physics-2/ and the book {Nature’s Manifesto, https://tienzengong.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/natures_manifesto2.pdf }.

 

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The End of the “Inflation-War”

 

The “Inflation-War” between two groups of Cosmologists (and Physicists) was officially announced on May 9, 2017, see https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/a-cosmic-controversy/ .

Group one: Anna Ijjas, Paul J. Steinhardt and Abraham Loeb

Group two: David Kaiser, Alan H. Guth, Andrei D. Linde and Yasunori Nomura + 29 cheerleaders (including 4 Nobel Laureates).

Issue: Group one accuses the “Inflation-Cosmology” is not science. Group two is the defender.

As {what is science?} is different for the two groups, this War is about the {Chicken argues with ducks}; talking to oneself, not to each other.

 

Thus, I have made a {Quality Control gauge (go/no-go) for physics theory}

puzzle

This is a puzzle-test-gauge, and it has the following attributes.

One, all pieces (except one missing piece) are known.

 

Two, these known pieces can be categorized in two ways.

First, by scale:

S1: quantum scale, {QM, SM (particles), ħ, hydrogen, CKM matrix, Cabibbo angle, Weinberg angle, Alpha}

S2: classic scale, {SR, GR, Newton, Maxwell (EM)}

S3: cosmic scale, {Planck CMB, CC, Dark mass, Dark energy}

 

Second, by type:

T1: as laws or principles, {QM, SR, GR, Newton, Maxwell (EM), CKM matrix}

T2: as structure, {SM (particles), hydrogen, Dark mass, Dark energy}

T3: as numbers or constants: {Cabibbo angle, Weinberg angle, Alpha, ħ, Planck CMB, CC}.

 

Three, the missing piece is the gauge for the {theory in question}.

 

There are three steps (or rules) for the gauging.

R1, is {this theory in question} a part of this puzzle? If it is, it must RELATE to some known pieces. If not at all (not even relates to a single one), it is not a part of this puzzle.

R2, if it cannot RELATE to ALL KNOWN pieces, it is not the right piece.

R3, if there is no fitting piece after trying ALL (infinite numbers of) possible pieces, the {theory in question} can be the {only game in town}.

 

Now, is any known piece above the direct consequence of {Inflation} by precise derivation? The answer is a big NO. That is, the {Inflation} is not even part of this puzzle. Science or not, {Inflation} is simply not PHYSICS.

 

Of course, there is a rescue in accordance to the R3. If no theory in an infinite possibility (such as in the case of multiverse), then {Inflation} can be the {only game in town}.

 

On the other hand, if we can find one theory which meets all three rules, then {Inflation} is dead.

With R1, we must show that one model is able to DERIVE at least SOME known pieces (if not ALL).

 

I will start with the issue of {how does THIS universe expanding with acceleration?} See graph below.

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With this universe expanding force, it DERIVES the quantum-principle (QM).

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In this model, ħ is the fundamental ACTION unit, and bookkeeping is done with a simple ratio {ħ/ (total quantum action counts)}. This ratio has been precisely measured as CC. This CC is the bookkeeping for this COSMO.

 

If the ħ is the fundamental ACTION unit, it should be the building block for all known matter too. That is, we should be able to DERIVE the value of ħ from the structure of the simplest atom (hydrogen). Indeed, we can, see graph below.

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Now, I have showed one model which not only is deriving some (not just one) known puzzle-pieces but encompasses the entire scope (from quantum particles to Cosmo). That is, R1 has been met.

 

Can this model meet R2, deriving ALL known puzzle pieces {such as, the Planck data (dark energy = 69.2; dark matter = 25.8; and visible matter = 4.82); Cabibbo angle; Weinberg angle; Alpha, etc.}? The answer is a big YES, see the book {Nature’s Manifesto — Nature vs Bullcraps} at https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/12/10/natures-manifesto-on-physics-2/

 

I told Alan Guth that {Inflation} is nonsense with very polite words in 1993. I am very happy that three more cosmologists now agree with me, 24 years after my comment. I am 100% certain that the {Inflation} will still be nonsense zillions years from now.

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In addition to this ‘quality control gauge’, we can examine this issue with traditional science methodology (theory-prediction-verification interplay).

In the G-theory’s derivation (calculation) of the Planck CMB data, it predicted a 9% DARK FLOW.

 

This prediction was verified a few weeks ago. Adam Riess (Nobel Laureate) announced on May 11, 2017 that the local measurement of Hubble constant is about 9% higher than the Planck CMB calculation (at the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre Center), see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2017/05/15/comment-on-adam-riess-talk/ . Also see Freedman’s plot below.

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In addition to passing the “quality control gauge” and ‘prediction/verification’ criterion, it needs to pass the Occam’s razor too; that is, better than the other cyclic-multiverse (CM) models.

For a correct cosmology, it basically must encompass 5 stages.

One, exponential expansion.

Two, energy dominant (no matter) period, before the CMB period: opaque, no lights (photons) can move freely.

Three, stars/galaxies forming period.

Four, accelerating expansion (currently).

Five, the END (fate) of this universe.

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For the mainstream:

‘one’ is described as ‘inflation’ or other CM models.

‘two’ and ‘three’ are the results of GR (General Relativity) and SM (Standard Model of particle physics).

‘four’ is a fact but the mechanism is unknown (the dark energy).

‘five’ is described with Ω.

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On the other hand, in G-theory:

‘one’ (exponential expansion) is the result of ‘cyclic bounces’.

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‘two’, ‘three’ and ‘four’ are controlled by the Dark Flow (W, between dark mass and dark energy).

 

When W = 100%, total energy, no matter

When W < 100%, matter forms (stars and galaxies)

When W > 0, the dark flow (mass rights leak as energy) generates more ‘space’, accelerating expansion.

When W = 0, no more mass leakage, and the Ω will slowly go to 1, ready for another bounce.

Currently, the W = 9% is the PREDICTION of G-theory, and it is now confirmed with the measurements (CMB and local) of Hubble constant.

 

For mainstream, the ‘End’ is an unknown for ‘inflation’. For CM, it (the END) is of course clearly defined as a ‘bounce’.

For all other CM models, they do not have a mechanism to change the Ω from the current value of (< 1, smaller than 1) to the required value of (> 1, larger than 1).

Furthermore, the ‘inflation’ and all other CM models are not about creation but began with something very small (definitely not nothing).

 

Now, we can make clear comparisons between G-theory and all the other models (inflation and all other CMs).

One, inflation is not a creation. It starts with something very small (definitely not nothing) which went through the exponential expansion (e^60 in 10^ (-35) seconds). The exponential expansions (such as inflation) at THIS Big Bang is phenomenologically similar to the CM expansions; thus, many CMB data do fit with ‘inflation’.

On the other hand, G-theory is a creation process. It starts with the equation-zero, from nothing creates (real time and ghost time). In real time, matter (positive energy) are created while the ghost time houses its (matter’s) ghost, the gravity (negative energy). The FIRST universe had only one particle (such as up-quark), and the lifetime of that universe is the same length as the life time of a virtue up-quark. About at the 10th universe, a (just one) proton was created. Then, the anti-protons for the next universe. It will take about N= 345 to reach the PRE-this-big bang state.

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Two, ‘inflation’ is a process AFTER (or at the same time) the big bang.

On the other hand, CM expansion is definitely BEFORE this big bang.

 

Three, ‘inflation’ does not lead to a definite END for this universe.

On the other hand, CM is controlled by the W-dynamics.

First, equation-zero shows that ¼ of time-energy goes into space while ¾ goes into matter. If no flow between the two, two times more matter are created than space.

But, there is interaction (flow) between the two.

At the beginning of the big bang, W = 100%, all energy, no matter. All matter are converted into energy/space.

After the opaque stage, matter became to form but still with a positive dark flow (+W); that is, the space is boosted by this +W (9% now) in addition to its rightful share (1/4 of time energy). So space expands with acceleration in addition to its normal expansion. During this period, the Ω is smaller than 1.

 

When W = 0, that acceleration of space expansion stops. At this point, the Ω will slowly reach the value of 1. As matter/energy ratio is 3 to 1 with equation zero, gravity will slowly change W from positive to negative (-W); that is, converting space into matter. In this period, the Ω will slowly go over 1. And, it leads to a new BOUNCE.

 

“Inflation” or any other cyclic model does not have this W-mechanism. Without this W-mechanism, there is no way of changing Ω from smaller than one (1) to larger than one (1).

 

 

China Super Collider, part three — A misled hype or dishonesty

 

Copyright © May 1, 2017 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

{Note: the debate of building China Super Collider (CSC) is now officially over, and CSC project is officially killed. For detailed debate, see China-Super-Collider-analysis  (https://tienzengong.files.wordpress.com/2017/05/china-super-collider-analysis.pdf ). For Chinese edition, see China-Super-Collider-debate 2

 

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End Note}

In our previous articles, I have showed two points.

One, there is no new physics for a 100 Tev p-p collider, according to the newest March 2017 data. See China-Super-Collider-part-one

Two, all 3 Nobel Laureates of physics (Steven Weinberg, David Gross, and Sheldon Lee Glashow) did not commit to any prediction that 100 Tev p-p machine can produce any new physics. That is, there is no clear MISSION for this machine.

And, all 3 of them did not try to push USA (their own country) to build such a machine while a tunnel for it is already 100% ready (that is, 70% of the cost is already paid for while the other cost could be shared by other countries). That is, USA will not even waste an idle space for the GREAT project while it is almost free. See China-Super-Collider-part-two

They three are supporting the Chinese project solely on the non-science points. The most important one is the ‘spin-off’ argument, with the example that {CERN invented World Wide Web}. That is, if Chinese Super Collider will not produce any new physics, it still has chance for having some great ‘spin-offs’, perhaps just as great as the WWW.

 

If this is the key argument for building the Chinese SC, we should then examine whether CERN truly invented WWW or not.

First, what does World Wide Web (WWW) mean for the streetwalking persons? It has two meanings.

One, everyone (streetwalking person) can browse zillions websites.

Two, everyone can publish one’s view and stories online.

 

With the above definition or understanding, then, what does WWW consist of? What are its backbone parts?

It should have at least (not all inclusive) two parts.

One, everyone has one web device (PC or smart phone) on hand.

Two, these web devices can communicate among one another (download and upload).

 

So, what is WWW?

Answer: the infrastructure which encompasses the two parts above is a WWW.

Now, we can analyze the parts and the history of this infrastructure.

One, computers must communicate among one another long distance. This was accomplished via internet, invented in 1960s (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet ).

 

Two, EVERYONE needs a computing device. This possibility starts with the first Apple computer sold by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in 1976. When IBM introduced PC in 1981, the foundation for WWW has set, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_personal_computers .

 

Three, without a user friendly computer (usable by every streetwalker), the WWW of today will not be realized. That is, without the introduction of MS window in 1985, PC was not truly usable by everyone, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Microsoft_Windows .

 

Four, without the development of the 32-bit data bus processer {such as the Pentium Pro (a sixth-generation x86 microprocessor) developed and manufactured by Intel, introduced in November 1, 1995, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium_Pro }, PC was only able to process some text messages, not the kind of web page of today.

 

Five, without a commercial ISP (Internet service provider), there will be no WWW. The first commercial ISP in the US opened in November 1989, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_World_(Internet_service_provider ).

 

Six, without the communication connection (capable of handling the huge data transmission) among continents, there will be no WWW. The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fiber t went into operation in 1988, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber-optic_communication .

 

Seven, by 1979, UseNet allowed users to communicate through a virtual newsletter, a text-based web page. While the chat-pages were widely spread in the late 1980s, the modern web pages (with graphs, easily readable by layperson) appeared after the easy using web browser, introduced by Mosaic (later Netscape) in 1993, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_web_browser .

 

Eight, with many different computing devices, the browsers are having difficult time to read and to display web pages for the different devices; that is, no World Wide pages. In 1995, Java platform (developed by Sun Microsystems which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation) resolved this issue, see http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/overview/javahistory-index-198355.html .

Nine, without a search engine, everyone will be lost in this web site ocean. The first web search engines (Archie search engine, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_web_search_engines ) appeared in 1990, 4 years before Yahoo and 14 years before Google.

 

Ten, without the first free social media

https://smallbiztrends.com/2013/05/the-complete-history-of-social-media-infographic.html , not everyone is able to be a publisher; that is, no WWW of today. By 1988, internet relay chats (or IRCs) was already widely used. The first recognizable social media site, Six Degrees, was created in 1997. It enabled users to upload a profile and make friends with other users. In 1999, the first blogging sites became popular, creating a social media sensation that’s still popular today.

After the invention of blogging, social media began to explode in popularity. Sites like MySpace and LinkedIn gained prominence in the early 2000s, and sites like Photobucket and Flickr facilitated online photo sharing. YouTube came out in 2005, creating an entirely new way for people to communicate and share with each other across great distances.

By 2006, Facebook and Twitter both became available to users throughout the world. These sites remain some of the most popular social networks on the Internet.

 

The above ten are the backbones of WWW. But, where is CERN in this picture? Of course, CERN has absolutely nothing to do with this picture, this infrastructure.

 

There is only one hyped or dishonest STORY.

Being generating so many documents from so many different departments, CERN commissioned one person (Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, a computer engineer) to come up a way to handle the communications among departments. Berners-Lee used himself as the hub (a repository) for all documents, the Berners-Lee web site, appeared on 6 August 1991.

Berners-Lee wrote, {Most of the technology involved in the web, like the hypertext, like the Internet, multifont text objects, had all been designed already. I just had to put them together. It was a step of generalizing, going to a higher level of abstraction, thinking about all the documentation systems out there as being possibly part of a larger imaginary documentation system.}

Yes, Berners-Lee was the one who coined the term {World Wide Web} and made some contribution on the HTML language.

But, how dare for him to claim that he invented the WWW while the first commercial ISP was in business in November 1989, while the first web search engine was available in 1990, while the virtual newsletter (a text-based web page) was already in use in 1979, and while Internet relay chats (or IRCs) were widely used in 1988?

 

As none of the ten above is able to claim the sole credit for WWW, no one challenges Berners-Lee’s dishonest claim. But, how dare for CERN (a big institution) to claim (or not denying) that CERN invented WWW? How dare of those Nobel Laureates to spread this nonsense.

 

No, WWW is not a spin-off from CERN.

 

Then, there is another misleading (dishonest) push about the cost of the construction for this China-Super-Collider.

Steven Weinberg and Sheldon Lee Glashow did not talk about this at all. David Gross claimed that the first stage (the CEPC) will cost about 6 billion US dollars while refused to make any speculation about the cost for SPPC.

 

Yet, the BEPC leadership claims that the total cost (for both CEPC and SPPC) is about 20 billion US dollars. If this is not stupid, must be a lie.

Just check out the cost for LHC.

One, the LHC itself (the first upgrade) costed over 10 billion US dollars.

Two, the LHC used the LEP tunnel. That is, the pre-LHC cost should also be included. The construction of LEP and 15+ years of operation costed over 15 billion US dollars.

Three, the designed LHC life is 25 years.  With the current cost (without the future inflation), it is now over one billion dollar a year as the operation cost. The lifetime operation cost will be over 30 billion US dollars.

Four, LHC planed three more upgrades: from 7 to 13 Tev (in 2014); from 13 to 14 Tev (in 2018); then goes to HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC, in 2020) (http://hilumilhc.web.cern.ch/ ). These three upgrades will cost about 5 billion US dollars.

So, the current estimate for LHC is (15 + 10 + 30 + 5 = 60 billion $), without considering the first 25 billion which could account for as 40 billion of today’s money. And, the next 35 billion could well be under estimated. That is, the cost for LHC (and its upcoming upgrade) will be more than 75 billion US dollars.

 

But, wait, wait, wait!

CERN itself is unable to process all the data it collects. CERN has a  {worldwide LHC computing grid (http://wlcg.web.cern.ch/ )} which is a global collaboration of more than 170 computing centers in 42 countries, linking up national and international grid infrastructures. The operation cost per year for this huge network is over one billion US dollars a year. For 25 years, the cost is over 25 billion today’s dollars.

 

So, for a 14 Tev machine, the lifetime cost is over 100 billion US dollars.

This brings up another issue. Is this {worldwide LHC computing grid} available for Chinese super collider (CSC) when it begins to run? The answer is almost 100% NO. Is there another computing grid available for CSC? Another big NO for now. That is, China must build her own grid, which will cost at least 10 billion US dollars.

 

Pushing CSC without any supporting infrastructure, it is evil, trying to do China in. Giving a birth, it costs only 1,000 US dollars, but the lifetime cost for that baby could well go over one million US dollars.

The BEPC leadership is trying to do Chinese people in with their evil ego.