Entropy: Quantum Gravity: Cosmology Constant

Section one: Quantum gravity

Gravity is all about mass. But, masses are carried by fermions, the quantum particles.

So, any gravity theory which is not based on particle theory is not correct, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/03/16/nothingness-vs-nothing-there-the-quantum-gravity/ .

Most of mainstream ‘quantum gravity’ theories try to quantize the GR (General Relativity) spacetime sheet in one way or another (discrete space or time, fixed coupling constants, etc.), such as those theories below.

Loop Quantum Gravity: space itself is discrete

Asymptotically Safe Gravity: pick a high-energy fixed point for the coupling constant

Causal Dynamical Triangulations: It’s similar to LQG in that space itself is discrete, but time must be discrete as well!

On the other hand, the M-string quantum gravity does describe the spacetime sheet with particles (the M-strings). But, the M-string itself does not have a ‘mass-rising’ mechanism of its own but borrows the {Higgs Nonsense} which is a total bullcrap, see https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/before-lhc-run-2-begins-enough-jeh-tween-gong ; that is, M-string quantum gravity is just a hallow hype.

Gravity is all about moving the ‘entire universe’ from {[HERE (now), NOW] to [HERE (next), Next]}, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html . This accelerates the expansion of universe and gives rise to the ‘uncertainty principle’.

Yet, this ‘arrow of time’ is the result of {nothing to something transformation} process, the answer for {why is there something rather than nothing?}

The {Nothingness} is defined as {timelessness and immutability}.

The timelessness is expressed with 4-real/ghost time dimensions (time-hose).

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That is, at every t, it is in fact timelessness in essence. And, this is expressed with an equation ‘zero’.

Delta S = (i^n1, i^n2, i^3) C delta T, {C, light speed; S, space; T, time; n1, n2, n3 take the value (0, 1, 2, 3)} … equation ‘zero’

With this equation, 64 subspaces are created; 48 are particles (fermions), and 16 are spacetime (dark energy), see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/48-exact-number-for-number-of.html and https://medium.com/@Tienzen/here-is-the-correct-answer-5d1a392f700#.a0jmn237w .

The moving of this 4-real/ghost time dimensions (time-hose) forms a {garden hose} as below.

This {garden hose} universe has eleven (11) dimensions:

One, the external (of time hose) space dimensions (3)

Two, the internal (of time hose) space dimensions (3)

Three, the time (hose, itself) dimension (1)

Four, the universal SPACE dimensions (3)

Five, the ‘nothingness’ which surrounds the entire {garden hose) is (1)

So, the total = 3 + 3 + 1 + 3 + 1 = 11

Although there are spatial dimensions, the definition for the dimensions here is a ‘linguistic’ definition, the ‘codes’ which are needed to describe a system (such as universe), see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/origin-of-spatial-dimensions-and.html . That is, 11 codes are enough to DESCRIBE this universe: 4-spacetime dimension and 7 color-codes (Red, Yellow, Blue, White, G1, G2, G3). It is the same for the {life universe}: (A, G, T, C, M (male), F (female), K (kids)).

With the {framework} being set up, the next is to set up the measuring rulers {ħ (Planck constant), C (light speed)}.

Then these rulers must be locked up: e (electric charge) = F (ħ, C), the first lock.

A second lock is need: Alpha = F (e, ħ, C)

With these two locks and the fixed framework, this universe is set FREE for its evolution, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/arbitrariness-and-final-unification-in.html .

Of course, the litmus test for the above is that the nature constants and parameters must be derived from the above scheme.

Cabibbo and Weinberg angles, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/10/theoretical-calculation-of-cabibbo-and.html

Alpha calculation, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-fine-structure-constant-mystery.html .

For Planck CMB data, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/

The Mass and Spin rising for Fermions:

Section two: about entropy

Entropy was initially defined as a macro-thermo-phenomena, as lack of order or predictability; gradual decline into disorder with the following equation, with the dimension of energy divided by temperature, which has a unit of joules per kelvin (J K−1).

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In the modern microscopic interpretation of entropy in statistical mechanics, entropy is the amount of additional information needed to specify the exact physical state of a system, given its thermodynamic specification. Understanding the role of thermodynamic entropy in various processes requires an understanding of how and why that information changes as the system evolves from its initial to its final condition. Again, it is often said that entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, or of our lack of information about it.

This statistical entropy is expressed as Boltzmann’s entropy equation (S = k log W), and the ‘S’ is an irreducible essence of any large ‘system’. Then, the concept of entropy is spreading into many (almost all) systems, especially the ‘information’ system. Again, it is all about the inherent tendency of any system towards the dissipation of useful energy or information.

So, entropy is thus far a phenomenological parameter without a deep connections to the other fundamental laws of physics (SM particles theory and gravity). Yet, very recently, there is a ‘quantum gravity’ which is based on entropy: the  entropic gravity (EG), which views that gravity was not a fundamental force, but rather emerged as a phenomenon linked to entropy. Unfortunately, those EG physicists still view the entropy with the above phenomenological sense, not knowing the true ‘essence’ of entropy. Thus, there is no chance for EG to success.

For constructing any system (a universe or else), it needs three departments.

D-one, the big framework: the 11 dimensions, the nothing to something transformation.

D-two, the locked measuring rulers.

D-three, a bookkeeper.

Entropy is the result of the bookkeeping.

This bookkeeping is all about the ‘action count’.

State one, a particle is at location (1), no action

State two, that particle moves to location (2), action one (1)

State three, that particle moves back to location (1), action (2)

State one and state three have the identical ‘physical’ states, but the action count for them is different. And, the count is an arrow, always in the increase, a true arrow. In a big system (especially a thermo-system), the measurement of the action count (entropy) is described with the Boltzmann’s entropy equation.

So, the arrow of time and the arrow of entropy are totally different arrows.

But, but, but, when a Pepsi can sits on my desk without any movement in the past 10 years, is there any action count for it? The answer is big YES in this G-string quantum gravity, as it is in fact moving in ‘time’, and every movement is an action. So, many people is confusing about that the two arrows are the same arrow. No, they are completely different arrows.

One, arrow of ‘time’: an emergent of the ‘timelessness’.

Two, arrow of ‘entropy’: the ever increasing the action count.

In the example above (from state one to state three), it gained nothing but still paid with higher action count. Phenomenologically, this is viewed as ‘dissipation’, and thus the entropy has not much to do with the fundamental laws of physics.

On the other hand, the TOTAL action count of this universe defines the STATUS of this universe. So, this {TOTAL COUNT} must be the most important number in the BOOK of this universe.

How can we calculate this {TOTAL COUNT}?

In the G-string quantum gravity, the universe moves {from [here (now), now] to [here (next), next]} with quantum action {ħ}, and each action is one {quantum information}, the quantum-bit.

Then, the largest unit of this quantum information is {ħ C} in one unit of time.

Finally, the NUMBER of quantum ACTIONs per time-dimension in a unit of time is {1/ (ħ C)}.

So, the {TOATL quantum action COUNT} of this universe {(TC) = {1/ (ħ C)} ^4 x T};

T, life time of universe; there are 4-time-dimensions.

So, TC = {1/ (ħ C) ^4} x T = 4.34/9.714 x 10^103 x 10^17

= 0.446 x 10 ^ 120

Planck’s constant   ħ = 1.0545718 × 10-34 m2 kg / s

The speed of light = 299 792 458 m / s = 2.99 x 10 ^ 8 m/s

So, (ħ C) ^ 4 = {(1.05 x 2.99) x (10 ^ (-34 + 8))} ^4 = 97.14 x 10 ^ (-104) = 9.714 x 10 (-103)

T (life time of universe, 13.799±0.021 billion years) = 4.34 x 10 ^17 s (second)

This universe thus far should have a {TOATL quantum action COUNT, (TC)} in an order of 10^120. Note: if we choose h over ħ,  TC ~ 10 ^ 123.

Selection three: Cosmological Constant

Cosmology constant (Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space. A positive vacuum energy density resulting from a cosmological constant implies a negative pressure, and vice versa. In terms of Planck units, and as a natural dimensionless value, the cosmological constant, λ, is on the order of 10^−120 or 10^−122.

Thus far, the Cosmology constant (Λ) is a phenomenological parameter without a theoretical meaning, although it was ad hoc defined in the GR equation. Again, it cannot be derived with any mainstream quantum gravity theories. M-string theory cannot even determine its sign (being positive or negative).

In this G-string quantum gravity, Cosmology constant (Λ) is defined as the ‘SHARE’ per quantum action.

So, Cosmology constant (Λ) = {1/ (TOATL quantum action COUNT)}

= {1/( [1/ (ħ C) ^4] x T)}

= {1/0.446 x 10 ^ 120}

= 2.242 x 10^-120

In h-unit, Cosmology constant (Λ) ~ 3 x 10^−123

Section four: Conclusion

Now, quantum gravity, entropy and Cosmology constant (Λ) are linked together.

One, Quantum gravity: moving this universe from {[here (now), now] to [here (next), next]} with a quantum action ħ.

Two, the total quantum action count is manifested as entropy.

Three, the Cosmology constant (Λ) is the SHARE per quantum action in this quantum gravity.

Note (added on September 12, 2016): How can the cosmological constant be so close to zero but not zero?

Answered by Ed Witten: {I really don’t know. It’s very perplexing that astronomical observations seem to show that there is a cosmological constant. It’s definitely the most troublesome, for my interests, definitely the most troublesome, observation in physics in my lifetime. In my career that is. See http://www.superstringtheory.com/people/witten.html }.

A fair assessment on M-string theory for layman is available here, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/09/11/the-era-of-hope-or-total-bullcrap/

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Deaths of two Gods

Section 1: There WERE three Gods

First, the Christian God (the CG) who created this universe with his saying:

{And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. … And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the water, and let it divide the waters from the waters. … And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. … And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. …And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for sign, and for seasons, and for days, and years: … And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. … And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. … And God said, Let us (plural) make man (singular) in our (plural) image, after our (plural) likeness: and let them (plural) have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. }, Genesis 1:3 to Genesis 1:26

{In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. … All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life; and the life was the light of men.}, John 1:1 to John 1:4

So, the Christian God created this universe with the Word of his saying, and the above sayings are declared as the ‘Supreme Intelligence’.

What is the detailed mechanism for this {saying/word} intelligence?

Wow, any question on or about this Almighty is sinful, destined going down to Hell.

Second, the God of Dishonesty (the G0d), the Darwinianism which governs this universe with Darwinian-evolution: {nature selection pressure (blind, non-intelligent) acts on phenotype of ‘individual’ of a population gradually and leads to ‘speciation’}.

Of course, the claim that the ‘nature selection’ acts on phenotype and leads to speciation is not true. Darwin was simply ignorant about the inheritance-mechanism.

But some pioneers in the field of population genetics (such as J.B.S. Haldane, Sewall Wright, and Ronald Fisher) ‘claimed’ that mutation on gene is mainly caused by the nature selection pressure, and thus ‘nature selection’ is still the only cause for adaptation. This ‘claim’ became the ‘modern evolutionary synthesis’ (the MES).

But, the MES was formulated at the time that ‘molecular biology’ was not known at all. In molecular biology, the gene-mutations are mostly caused by the gene-dynamics, not by ‘nature-selection-pressure’. Then, mutation has very little effect on species with very high bio-evolution- inertia. That is, the complexity is not driven by mutation. The nature-selection-pressure of Darwin-mechanism has very little effect on any highly developed species.

With all these new knowledge, the Darwinianism {especially the MES (modern evolutionary synthesis)} should be abandoned as a science. But, in order to fight against the {saying/word} intelligent God, MES must elevate the Blindness of the nature selection to the status of God too.

God is defined by at least two very special attributes.

One, it is omnipotent: any question on or about it is sinful, destined going down to Hell. So, any fact which is in contradiction with the Almighty is at best a partial fact and must be synthesized into the Almighty.

So, the genotype must be synthesized in Darwinian phenotype.

The co-evolution is obviously not a behavior of ‘individual’, but so what!

The social insects which account a significant portion of the total bio-mass can obviously not evolve with ‘individual’, but so what!

The horizontal gene transfer is obvious not a mechanism of a blind process or a result of a blind process, but so what!

The genetic drift (with Founder effect) is simply based on math, absolutely nothing to do with the ‘blind G0d (the nature selection), but so what!

The genetic assimilation is an adaptation, nothing to do with the ‘blind G0d’, but so what!

The mass-extinction (normally caused by external disasters, as whether changes, etc.) is the LARGEST evolution force which reshuffles the evolution players completely, and this is absolutely not the Darwinian type of natural selection, but so what!

The single cell To multi-cells (not differentiated) To multi-cells (differentiated) evolution is totally based on the laws of physics or topology, but so what!

The cell types (the domains) evolution: from archaean / eubacterium To eukaryotes has nothing to do with any selection, but so what!

The fact of punctuated equilibrium shows that the evolution is not ‘gradual or continuous’, but so what!

The reproduction process evolution: from binary fission (tearing self-apart) To asexual (mitosis) To sexual reproduction (meiosis) are simple number games. The sexual process is

INTENTIONally  to gain ‘variable numbers’ by paying huge price, giving up the right of survive (reproduction) of ‘individual’, a group strategy: totally contradicting with the G0d doctrine, but so what!

The most important evolution historical events:

  1. Biologization: converting the inorganic compounds into biological substances, mainly done by bacteria or archaeans.
  2. Global oxygenation: this started with oxygen-producing bacteria and was accelerated with oxygenic photosynthesis.
  3. The fungi rescue of wood crisis: restoring the greenhouse gas (stabilizing the globe temperature) and provided space and food for land animals.

None of these has anything to with the G0d nonsense (the nature selection), but so what!

The mechanisms of {mitosis, meiosis, Hox genes and DNA repairing mechanism, etc.} are so complicated, and they will take longer than the life time of this universe for trillions of Boltzmann monkeys to produce them, but so what!

The macro evolutionary (by Stephen Jay Gould) is definitely not {nature selection acts on the ‘individual’}, but so what?

That is, no amount of facts or evidences can DAMN this G0d nonsense (the natural selection). All those facts are just lower truths and must be swept under the synthesis carpet.

This G0d nonsense (the nature selection, totally blind) has officially passed the first Godly test, being omnipotent.

Two, God must be omnipresent: see,

Universal Darwinism (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Darwinism ): Everything is the result of nature selection.

Cosmic natural selection {http://evodevouniverse.com/wiki/Cosmological_natural_selection_(fecund_universes) }, even the laws of nature are selected by a totally Blind-G0d.

Meme (evolution of society, culture and everything else), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meme

Being both omnipotent and omnipresent, Darwinism or it grandson (the MES, modern evolutionary synthesis) is official a God, the G0d.

Being totally BLIND while is still able to rule the entire universe, this G0d is of course much more powerful than CG.

Third, the God of the gaps (the GG):

Although this omnipotent G0d (the nature selection nonsense) is totally BLIND and is still unable to ignore a simple question: {why is there something rather than nothing?} After all, this totally blind G0d is itself a something. Thus, this G0d admits that there is a ‘God of the gaps (the GG)’ who rules over all the current open questions.

In physics, there are some open questions, such as {dark energy, dark mass, hierarchy problems, fine-tuning, etc.}. Except the fine-tuning issue, physicists believe that all other issues will be understood eventually. For the fine-tuning issue, many physicists have given it to the GG, who rules over the ‘multiverse’. Of course, this GG is by definition beyond the scientific epistemology.

So, we now have three Gods, {CG, G0d and GG}. And they are the ‘only game’ in their own town.

This ‘only game in town’ epistemology can almost be elevated into a 4th God if we cannot show that there is a true game in town.

Fortunately, there is a true game in town.

Section 2: Selection vs adaptation

If you are not a scientist, we can discuss this G0d in terms of its semantic meaning.

‘Selection’ is to mean selecting something from an existing pool. So, for an existing pool, something is selected ‘IN’ while something else is selected ‘OUT’.

What is the meaning of ‘selected-OUT’? Extinction? If this is the case, many species are selected-OUT by the mass-extinction (normally caused by major disasters), but ‘mass-extinction’ is not the Darwinian type of ‘natural selection’ which acts on the phenotype of ‘individual’ of a population gradually and leads to ‘speciation’.

The hallmark example of Darwinian evolution is the peppered moth: the dark phenotype of moth became dominant during the industrial pollution period. But, after the pollution was cleared, the light phenotype of moth bounced back. That is, in this case, the light moth was not truly ‘selected-OUT’. And, the dark moth was not a new species via Darwinian speciation.

Another hallmark example of Darwinian evolution is the ‘superbug’ which gains the resistance for many antibiotics. Even in this case, the old-bugs are not ‘selected-OUT’. In fact, this new superbug is much weaker in the low antibiotic environment which accounts for 99% of the population. By all means, the superbug is not an evolution achievement, and it is just an ecophenotypic variation.

The modern evolutionary synthesis (MES) defines evolution as the change over time in genetic variation. The frequency of one particular allele will become more or less prevalent relative to other forms of that gene. Variation disappears when a new allele reaches the point of fixation — when it either disappears from the population or replaces the ancestral allele entirely.

In MES, “Nature” refers to an ecosystem, that is, a system in which organisms interact with every other element, physical as well as biological, in their local environment. “Nature selection” most generally makes nature the measure against which individuals and individual traits, are more or less likely to produce offspring.

Thus, the ecotype speciation plays no role in the historical current of evolution, as it does not make major changes in the genetic variation, and it in general does not select-out any old population.

The light moth was not selected out by the dark moth.

The old bugs were not selected out by the superbug.

The finches were not selected out by one another.

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The plant Hieracium umbellatum of broad leaves and expanded inflorescences (found around rocky, sea-side cliffs) is not selected out by a narrow leaves (with compact inflorescences, among sand dunes) variety.

Thus, those hallmarks of Darwinianism examples are at the best the examples of epigenetics.

In fact, in the entire taxonomic hierarchy, not a single taxonomic branching has been verified to be the result of Darwinian mechanism (nature selection acts on …).

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The best example is the rising of eukaryote, which is not selected-IN from neither bacteria nor archaea. Eukaryote arose from the ‘interaction (not selection)’ between bacteria and archaea.

The bottom-line is that ‘selection (of any kind)’ can only be selecting-In or selected-OUT from existing pool, and no ‘selection’ can select from ‘future’ (not yet existing). “Selection” is not a creation process.

Selection is a process from ‘without’, an external process. ‘Adaptation’ is a process from ‘within’, an internal process.

In science, every term must be clearly defined. The semantic meaning of {selection and adaptation} must be clearly distinguished.

If a species survives the external pressure with its existing ‘tool box (the variation of the gene pool, etc.)’, it has been ‘selected’, not adapted.

Thus, adaptation must not be the result of selection. The ‘adaptation’ must be defined as ‘acquiring’ a (or some) new tool in some ways.

So, the semantic definitions are:

One, ‘selection’ cannot produce anything truly ‘new’, selecting something beyond the existing pool.

Two, ‘adaptation’ cannot be the result of selection but must be acquiring something ‘NEW’.

Eukaryote is obviously not a result of selection, as it is something new. So, eukaryote-rising-mechanism (ERM) is one kind of ‘adaptation’. However, there are two more adaptation-mechanisms.

First, adaptation in accordance to physics laws and topology.

Example one, the rising of body shape: when a single cell replicates with ‘binary-fission’, it produces a grape-bunch like mass in a nutrient soup. Of course, the internal cells of the mass are deprived from the nutrient. So, a tube like structure will be the way to get nutrient for all cells. So, the adaptation of a tube-like body shape for multi-cells organism is simply following the laws of physics and topology.

Example two, the rising of differentiation: it simply follows the topology, see, (What is Topological command? At http://sexevolution.wikia.com/wiki/Switching_off_cancer_cells ).

Example three, the rising of the first DNA: the stability of any ‘structure’ is 100% depending on the physics laws. That is, all forms of stable ‘structure’ are predetermined by the physics laws. Yet, the easiest stable structure is a symmetrical structure. And, the double helix structure is a physics predetermined structure. As soon as there are suitable Lego pieces for that structure, it will form automatically.

In Conway’s game of life, when some stones are randomly dropped on the life-board, some patterns will quickly appear in accordance to the rules of the game. While most of the patterns will become sterile, some will become lively, and the ‘glide’ is such a lively pattern. Although the initial ‘seeds’ are randomly dropped, this is absolutely not a ‘random’ process, as it is governed by the ‘rules of the game’.

It is already a fact that amino acid can be produced from a non-organic soup. Then, those amino acids can combine again in accordance to the physics laws. While most of the combinations are not suitable for fitting in into some stable structures, some of the combinations will become suitable Lego pieces for some stable structures.

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Double helix is a very simple stable structure, needs much less lego types than the high heel above and only needs one super glue (the hydrogen bond). Again, this is not a ‘random’ process (no Boltzmann monkeys are needed), as it is governed by the laws of physics. So, the first piece of double helix (with A, C, T, G) can appear in very short time period (in terms of the life evolution time-scale).

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Then, the DNA replication process (via RNA) and the using protein as the language for metabolism are both the result of ‘in accordance to laws’ and a new adaptation mechanism (the intelligence).

Second, the adaptation with ‘intelligence’: the biggest (biggest, biggest, …, biggest,…) evolution force is the ‘mass-extinction (normally caused by major disasters)’ which reshuffles the evolution players completely.

In general, the ecosystem is ruled by the physical strength (such as in the Mesozoic Era). Thus the weaker must be innovational with some defensive measures. Any kind of innovation is the result of ‘intelligence’.  And, those defensive measures were more effective to fend off the major disasters.

Thus, after repeated ‘mass-extinctions’, the ‘intelligence’ becomes the dominant evolution force.

This is about the macro-intelligence. The micro-intelligence which invented ‘protein language’ requires more detailed discussions. But, it will become clear after we address the issue {where is the source of intelligence?}

What is intelligence?

Where is the source for intelligence?

How intelligence is manifested (expressed or implemented)?

One, what is intelligence? See, http://www.prebabel.info/aintel.htm for details.

Intelligence and consciousness are defined as below.

For intelligence:

The necessary condition: having a counting device (counting straw, abacus or Turing computer).

The sufficient condition: having the ability of distinguishing ‘self’ from others.

For consciousness:

The necessary condition: having the ability of distinguishing ‘self’ from others.

The sufficient condition: having a counting device (counting straw, abacus or Turing computer).

Two, where is the source for intelligence? That is, where is the counting device?

Yes, the counting device is embedded in the laws of physics, see http://www.prequark.org/Biolife.htm

Where is the source for the ability to distinguish ‘self’ from others?

Yes, the ability of distinguishing ‘self’ from others is also embedded in the laws of physics, as the fermions can be described with 7 colors, see http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/cw6.htm  .

Three, how intelligence is manifested or implemented?

The ‘high’ intelligence is implemented with sex-mechanism, see http://sexevolution.wikia.com/wiki/Sexevolution_Wiki .

I have basically provided a model for both ‘creation of life (the first DNA)’ and ‘evolution of life: three adaptation mechanisms’. But, the most fundamental issue {why is there something rather than nothing?}, the issue of creation is still not discussed.

For {why is there something rather than nothing?}

“Nothingness’ is defined as {timelessness and immutability}.

In order to create something from nothing, nothing must remain as nothing. And, it is done with the Real/Ghost 4-time-dimensions (that is, at every t, it is in fact timeless).

timelessness

See https://medium.com/@Tienzen/here-is-the-correct-answer-5d1a392f700#.8rcbwlbgq and

https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/01/18/the-final-toe-theory-of-everything/

And, the immutability is manifested as the rising of {dark energy, dark mass and 48 fermions}, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2014/02/ghost-rascal-conjecture-and-ultimate.html .

For dark energy/dark mass issues, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/

For fine-tuning issue and the multiverse nonsense, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/10/multiverse-bubbles-are-now-all-burst-by.html and

https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/05/15/paul-steinhardts-remorse-popperianism-and-beauty-contest/

Then, the ‘arrow of time’ must move as Archimedes’ spiral (see page 39, Super Unified Theory, ISBN 0916713016, 9780916713010)

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or see ‘III: Creation of time’, http://www.prequark.org/Create.htm ): this ‘arrow of time’ actually encompasses eleven (11) dimensions, see graph below.

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With these, all ‘gaps’ are filled. That is, the GG (God of the Gaps) is now dead.

Conclusion:

In fact, this ‘nothing to something creation’ process has many expressions (manifestations).

Physics expression: the Real/Ghost symmetry (see ‘Super Unified Theory’)

Math expression: zero/infinities symmetry

Life expression: intelligence/consciousness

Linguistics expression: large complex system theorem

In fact, all these manifestations (expressions) are isomorphic to one another. There are two points on this fact.

One, when one manifestation is fully understood, all other manifestations will be understood too.

Two, although the expression of each manifestation is completely different from others’ superficially, they must be identical in their essences.

So, in physics expression, the ‘nothingness’ is expressed as {timelessness and immutability}, and thus this {timelessness and immutability} must be the essence for all other expressions.

In physics, the ‘timelessness’ is expressed as the rising of ‘arrow of time’ via the {real/ghost 4-time dimensions}. The ‘immutability’ is expressed as the {planned attack by the Ghost rascal}.

Thus, in life, the timelessness (eternality) is achieved by both {the species immortality} and {the timeless stable structure in accordance to the laws of physics}. The immutability is maintained with both {DNA stability and its repairing mechanism} and evolution (the Ghost rascal in the life-realm).

So, the {timeless stable structure} created the first DNA.

Then, the immutability of life-realm is expressed as evolution, which consists of two forces.

One, ‘selection’: the most powerful selection is the ‘mass-extinction’ which is of course not {Darwin’s nature selection}. Selection is an external force, often ‘blind’. ‘Selection’ cannot produce NEW by definition.

Two, ‘adaptation’: overcoming the external force by acquiring some new tools. Thus, surviving in ‘selection’ is not adaptation. ‘Adaptation’ must acquire something NEW.

There are three ways of adaptation.

One, the eukaryote-rising-mechanism (ERM): the interaction (not selection) among the old, and something NEW is produced.

Two, arising out in accordance to the rules of the game (such as, the rules of life-game of glider or the laws of physics, etc.). That the lego pieces (A, C, T, G) fall into the predetermined stable structure (double helix, etc.)  is one example. Another example will be the rise of ‘human-like-brain’, see http://www.prequark.org/inte001.htm .

Three, advancing with ‘intelligence’: the species intelligence, see http://sexevolution.wikia.com/wiki/Species_Intelligence_and_its_Internal_Sanction . “Intelligence” is the most powerful evolution force for the very complex life-systems.

So, life is constrained and confined by the laws of physics and theorems of topology. While being the rulers of constrain and confinement for life, the laws of physics and theorems of topology are also providing zillions (unbounded many) options; that is, the ‘nature options’. Then, life has intelligence and can choose the best option from a set of ‘nature options’. There is no ‘nature selection’ which is not only wrong but is a total bullcrap.

Finally, the ‘arrow of evolution’ is isomorphic to the ‘arrow of time’, see:

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Now, I have showed a ‘true game in town’ (answering the issue of {why is there something rather than nothing?}), and thus the G0d and GG are now dead.More details, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/01/18/the-final-toe-theory-of-everything/

Although CG is ignorant about the modern science, it is about the knowledge of the spiritual world, and it comforts zillions of human beings.

On the other hand, Darwin’s original work is a mediocre scientific work (being mostly wrong). Although the most later works (such as, genetics, horizontal gene transfer, genetic drift, genetic assimilation, punctuated equilibrium, molecular biology, etc.) are scientifically correct, they are all in conflict with or in contradiction to the Darwinianism. But, they are synthesized into MES (by swept those contradictions under the synthesizing carpet) for the reason of trying to elevate Darwinianism (especially the nature selection) to the status of G0d in order to fight against the Christian God. And, this is the worst shamelessness in human history. Worshiping the G0d by ignoring all scientific facts, it is the most shameful thing in this universe. See, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2014/10/11/intelligent-evolution/ for more details.

After all, the ‘Creation of Life’ is now totally understood, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/05/13/creation-of-life/

Physics expression: the Real/Ghost symmetry (see ‘Super Unified Theory’)

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Linguistics expression: large complex system theorem, see

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Also see, Final TOE (theory of everything), https://medium.com/@Tienzen/final-toe-theory-of-everything-9b12ec7c0c9f#.ovdjer2yy

Note (added on August 29, 2016):

The current (2016) mainstream physics status is this: #PostCheckmateTTF (Post Checkmate temper tantrum fit).

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/26/vision-eulogy-the-post-checkmate-temper-tantrum-fit/

 Copyright © April 2016 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong