Vision eulogy: the Post Checkmate Temper Tantrum fit

 

Dr. David Gross (Nobel laureate) gave a “Vision speech” on August 5, 2016 at {Strings 2016 conference (http://ymsc.tsinghua.edu.cn:8090/strings/ ) held at Tsinghua University, Beijing China}.

It not only is a great eulogy for String theory but is an ‘unconditional surrender declaration’ for the mainstream physics. This eulogy/declaration consists of only three simple points.

Point one, a framework is a hodgepodge, can rot but not be falsified.

eggcarton245

 

Point two, String-theory is a framework, a big hodgepodge.

eggcarton243

 

Point three, mainstream physics is trapped in a triangle hellfire dungeon, with no way out.

eggcarton244

 

The first two points are the compliments of String theory in a nice eulogy. The last point is the total surrender declaration for the mainstream physics.

 

Indeed, the only way to rescue the mainstream physics is by solving these three hellfire dungeon curses: {(initial/boundary conditions), (essence of spacetime), (uniqueness/unification)}.

 

One, uniqueness/unification: locked up the measuring rulers of this universe; the calculation of Alpha.

See http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-fine-structure-constant-mystery.html

 

Two, essence of spacetime: the rising of SM zoo and mass; calculating the Planck CMB data and Vacuum boson’s mass.

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/

 

See https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/before-lhc-run-2-begins-enough-jeh-tween-gong

 

Three, initial/boundary conditions: the calculation of Cosmology Constant.

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/entropy-quantum-gravity-cosmology-constant/ and https://medium.com/@Tienzen/you-are-superficially-right-but-totally-wrong-in-the-deepest-point-188143a8b228#.80vcfsz3a

 

Now, the guarding curses of the hellfire dungeon which imprisons the mainstream physics are removed. The mainstream physics is now rescued, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/13/mainstream-physics-rescued-from-the-hellfire-dungeon/ .

 

Yet, on a {15 year old “SUSY Bet” settlement event in Copenhagen on August 22, 2016}, most of the “SUSY Bet” losers (including Dr. David Gross) are still clinging on their SUSY-undead.

 

{“In the absence of any positive experimental evidence for supersymmetry,” Gross said, “it’s a good time to scare the hell out of the young people in the audience and tell them: ‘Don’t follow your elders. … Go out and look for something new and crazy and powerful and different. Different, especially.’ That’s definitely a good lesson. But I’m too old for that.”}

 

Gross is obviously going through the {first stage of grief}, the denial and giving up. Other deniers are more aggressive, proclaiming the {underdetermination} of the current situation. But, with the removing the three curses, the {underdetermination} of physics is no more, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/20/underdetermination-of-physics-is-no-more/ .

eggcarton251

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/13/mainstream-physics-rescued-from-the-hellfire-dungeon/

 

After the {anger and depression}, David Gross (and all others) will definitely get a upward turn, as my Protégé Dr. Li xiaojian (Professor of North China University of Technology, Beijing, 100144, China) had showed this “G-string rescue” to Dr. David Gross and others.

eggcarton218

 

eggcarton246

This post checkmate temper tantrum fit will soon be over for sure.

Note: The post checkmate temper tantrum fit:

There are three checkmates on the mainstream physics:

One, the three unreachable curses (in Gross speech).

 

Two, the 2016 data (LHC, LUX, IceCube), especially on M-string theory, SUSY and WIMPs, etc.

SUSY was only a wild goose idea at the beginning. Then, it became an essential CONSEQUENCE of M-string theory. Finally, it becomes the hope for solving the dark mass issue. Yet, SUSY is now checkmated by the 2016 data.

 

Three, the G-string rescue: the G-string is not different from M-string in degree but is in kind. The foundation of G-string is completely different from the entire mainstream physics. The mainstream physics is phenomenologically based while the G-string is First Principle (axiomatic) based.  Yet, as the only theory being able to remove the first checkmate (the three hellfire dungeon curses), the G-string rescue becomes the final checkmate on the mainstream physics.

 

Now, we have a classic post checkmate temper tantrum fit.

First, the denial: String (M-string) theory is a framework, can rot but not falsifiable.

Second, placing the blame: String (M-string) is innocent as the entire PHYSICS is imprisoned by the three curses.

Third, self-excuse:  {… the young people … Go out and look for something new and crazy …}, that is, I am smart but not crazy. Don’t blame on me.

Four, giving up: {But I’m too old for that.}

Five, making a religion: the TRUTH in religion can be ordained without the concerning of evidences of any kind (empirical or rational). Now, John Ellis (a prominent theoretical physicist at CERN) has ‘also’ announced that no matter what the LHC says, he’s not giving up on SUSY. See, http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/the-hope-of-susy-parousia.html .

 

Yet, the real and final CHECKMATE is the G-string rescue; that is, the MAINSTREAM theoretical physics in the past 50 years is totally wrong, a total trash. Tens thousands of great physicists were simply wasting their lives away and wasting billions of tax payers money away. The post checkmate temper tantrum fit on this will be like this:

 

 

Underdetermination of physics is no more!

After the 2016 data from {LHC, LUX, IceCube, etc.}, ALL mainstream BSMs (beyond standard models) are now dead.

 

Yet, many (even very prominent) physicists are still praying for the resurrections of those mainstream BSM corpses under the philosophical idea of ‘underdetermination’ which states that all theories are underdetermined.

 

What is underdetermination? The detailed definition of it is available at here http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-underdetermination/ . But, I will give a very simple example here for readers who do not have time to read that book size definition.

 

Example:

Here has three known facts.

One, Mike has $10.

Two, orange costs $1.

Three, apple costs $2.

 

From these three facts, we can build a lot theories (models).

Ma: Mike brought 11 oranges.

Mb: Mike brought 2 oranges and 4 apples.

Mc: Mike brought 4 oranges and 3 apples.

Md, Mf, …

 

With the three known facts (evidences or data), Ma is easily ruled out as being wrong. But for Mb and Mc (perhaps more M…), the known evidences are not enough to SEPARATE these competing theories. The situation now is underdetermined. Those theories (Mb, Mc, …) are underdetermined theories.

 

As the goalpost of many theories (such as SUSY and multiverse) can be arbitrarily moved, those theories will be forever underdetermined, being a living-dead forever.

 

But no, this is not the case for physics. There are four known facts (precisely measured) in physics.

One, {1/Alpha} = 137.0359…

Two, Planck CMB data: {dark energy = 69.2 +/- 1%; visible mass = 4.82 +/- 0.05%; dark mass = 25.8 +/- 0.4%}

Three, Higgs boson’s mass: {125.09 (+/- 0.24) Gev}

Four, Cosmology Constant? {~ 3 x 10 ^ (-120)}

 

That is, any theory which cannot derive (calculate) these four known facts must be ruled out. With this criterion, physics is no longer underdetermined any more.

 

Yet, if no one is able to come up a theory to meet the criterion, a resurrection elixir for those mainstream BSM corpses can be produced: {the only game in town}.

 

Furthermore, many claim that those four facts are just simple numbers, and every number can always be reached with some numerological formulas. But in my view, a numerological formula could always give hints for some underlying logic (physics). So, I have offered an award of US $5,000 for anyone who is able to come up numerological formulas for those four numbers. The detail of the offer is available at http://tienzen.blogspot.com/2016/08/two-thumbs-up.html .

 

With this four-fact criterion, the underdetermination of physics is no more.

 

 

Mainstream physics: rescued from the Hellfire dungeon

The mainstream physics was imprisoned in the hellfire dungeon by four guarding curses:

How to calculate Alpha?

How to calculate (and account for) Planck CMB data?

How to calculate Vacuum (wrongly named as Higgs) boson’s mass?

How to calculate Cosmology Constant?

(#RescueMainstreamPhysics)

eggcarton233

 

The mainstream’s hope relies on finding some new particles (SUSY, WIMPs, Extra dimensions, sterile neutrinos, etc.), but that hope was crashed by the 2016 data from {LHC, LUX, IceCube, etc.}. Furthermore, any more data from LHC will help very little, as the discovery rate will decrease exponentially, see graph below.

eggcarton231

 

That is, the entire mainstream BSM is now dead. There is no hope of any kind for the mainstream physics to escape from the imprisonment of the Hellfire dungeon via the help from mainstream BSM.

 

Fortunately, all those four curses are removed by the G-string quantum-gravity.

One, Calculating Alpha (#how2CalculateAlpha ):

See https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/totally-blind-deaf-googlefacebookblogosphere-era-jeh-tween-gong

 

Two, calculating (accounting for) Planck CMB data (#how2CalculatePlanckCMBdata):

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/

 

Three, calculating Vacuum (wrongly named as Higgs) boson’s mass (#how2CalculateHiggsbosonMass):

G-string beta decay

Step 1: picking up a (d, -d) vacuum to form a five quark blob

Step 2: vacuum transformation {(d, -d) to (u, -u)} via a vacuum boson

Step 3: exchanging prequarks, W-like weak current

See https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/before-lhc-run-2-begins-enough-jeh-tween-gong

 

Four, calculating (accounting for) Cosmology Constant (#how2CalculateCosmologyConstant):

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/entropy-quantum-gravity-cosmology-constant/

 

This G-string rescue was presented at {Strings 2016 conference (http://ymsc.tsinghua.edu.cn:8090/strings/ )} held at Tsinghua University, Beijing China (from August 1 to 5, 2016), by my Protégé Dr. Li xiaojian.  The key points of this presentation is available at https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/the-final-total-toe-theory-of-everything/ .

My Protégé Dr. Li xiaojian (Professor of North China University of Technology, Beijing, 100144, China) discussed This “G-string rescue” with Dr. David Gross (Nobel laureate) on August 5, 2016; see photos below.

 

 

 

 

Note (added on August 29, 2016):

The current (2016) mainstream physics status is this: #PostCheckmateTTF (Post Checkmate temper tantrum fit).

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/26/vision-eulogy-the-post-checkmate-temper-tantrum-fit/

 

 Copyright © August 2016 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

 

The Final Total TOE (theory of everything)

 

For a Final total TOE, it must consist of, at least, three pillars:

One, physics-TOE

Two, life-TOE

Three, math-TOE

It must arises from a single FIRST PRINCIPLE.

And, it must make contact to ALL known facts (not theories).

 

This criteria is simple enough and is verifiable by every street walking person.

 

Section one: the philosophy

Wigner (in a 1969 essay) argued that {“the enormous usefulness of mathematics in the natural sciences is something bordering on the mysterious”, and that “there is no rational explanation for it”.}

Wigner’s statement shows the current status of math which has a BASE totally disjoined from NATURE. The modern math INVENTed a set LANGUAGEs and plays a language game internally. Language by definition is recursively defined and is a machine for producing paradoxes and riddles.

Furthermore, the key point here is that the math-universe is a multiverse, with infinite many sub-universes while THIS physical universe is unique with many known attributes: nature constants, Planck CMB data, SM particle zoo, etc.

 

So, the key issue here is that:

One, is math ONLY as a great tool and language for describing physics? Or,

Two, {math universe} is totally isomorphic to the {physics universe}, the total universal structural realism.

Or, three, THIS unique physical universe of ours is just a happenstance in the physics-multiverse.

 

The answer from nature is {Two}, and this was the key point in the book {Super Unified Theory, US copyright TX 1-323-231} which describes this issue with three Chapters:

Chapter Seven – Colored numbers (page 53 – 61)

Chapter Eight – Chromology (page 62 – 69)

Chapter Nine – Unilogy (page 70 – 74)

 

Some of discussions of this issue were also post online over 20 years ago, see,

Unification of physics and mathematics, http://www.prequark.org/Mlaw.htm

and, Law of Creation, http://www.prequark.org/Create.htm

 

As the criteria is that all these three TOEs must arise from a single ‘First Principle’, there is no way to prove that the third TOE (math) is correct if we cannot show the details of two other TOEs. Thus, I will show the validity of math-TOE by showing the two other TOEs first.

 

Section two: physics-TOE

One, the first principle: {The essence of THIS universe is ‘NOTHINGNESS’, and it must remain to be nothingness}

Two, definition of ‘nothingness’: {timelessness and immutability}

Three, manifestation of timelessness: at every t, it must be ‘timelessness’ in essence.

 

 

Four, the equation of this ‘timelessness’: {Delta S = (i^n1, i^n2, i^n3) x C x Delta T} … Equation zero

S, space; T, time (real); C, light speed. (n1, n2, n3) take the value of {0, 1, 2, or 3}

Five, Equation zero generates 48 SM fermions, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/48-exact-number-for-number-of.html

 

Six, the manifestation of ‘immutability’: via Ghost-rascal, see  http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2014/02/ghost-rascal-conjecture-and-ultimate.html . Again, it generates 48 SM fermions.

Seven, the manifestation as force(s):

F (unified) = K*ħ/ (delta S*delta T), K is a coefficient constant … Equation one

 

This force (gravity) has two parts:

First, it moves the entire universe from {[here (now), now] to [here (next), next]}, and it causes the expansion of universe with acceleration.

 

 

Second, every individual particle interact with ALL particles in this universe via the {Real/Ghost symmetry}, with the strength measured with Newton’s gravity equation (distance is measured in the world (real) sheet).

See http://www.prequark.org/Gravity.htm

 

This physics-TOE has the following consequences:

Consequence one: universe expands with acceleration. See, http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html

Consequence two: uncertainty principle is the emergent of Equation one.

Consequence three: calculation of Alpha

See https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/totally-blind-deaf-googlefacebookblogosphere-era-jeh-tween-gong

Consequence four: calculation of Planck CMB data

See, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/

Consequence five: calculation of Cosmology constant, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/entropy-quantum-gravity-cosmology-constant/

Consequence six: the Hierarchy problem

See https://medium.com/@Tienzen/why-making-something-easy-so-difficult-aae8e3715b6d#.6ko3u5dlf

Consequence seven: the physics-TOE,

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/01/18/the-final-toe-theory-of-everything/

 

 

Section three: life-TOE

The highest EXPRESSION for life is {intelligence and consciousness}.

One, definition of ‘intelligence’:

Necessary condition: there is a ‘counting’ device (counting strews, abacus or Turing computer).

Sufficient condition: the ability to distinguish self from others.

See http://www.prequark.org/Biolife.htm

Two, definition of ‘consciousness’:

Necessary condition: the ability to distinguish self from others.

Sufficient condition: there is a ‘counting’ device (counting strews, abacus or Turing computer).

eggcarton184

More about this ‘Theorem of Consciousness’, see Metaphysics of Linguistics, http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/cwr018.htm

More about this ‘Theorem of Consciousness’, see Metaphysics of Linguistics, http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/cwr018.htm .

 

Now, intelligence and consciousness are SEEDed in physics. Yet, the utmost EXPRESSION of life has a structure as a topological torus, having 7 color-codes.

eggcarton190

With embedded intelligence and consciousness, life evolves INTELLIGENTly, see DEATHS OF TWO GODS, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/20/deaths-of-two-gods/ and, INTELLIGENT EVOLUTION, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2014/10/11/intelligent-evolution/

With embedded intelligence and consciousness, life evolves INTELLIGENTly, see DEATHS OF TWO GODS, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/20/deaths-of-two-gods/ and, INTELLIGENT EVOLUTION, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2014/10/11/intelligent-evolution/ .

With {intelligent evolution}, life-TOE is complete, and it unifies with the physics-TOE.

 

 

Section four: the math-TOE

There are three key points for the current mainstream math:

One, number line has the cardinality of continuum; that is, between any {two points}, there are ‘infinite’ numbers between them.

Two, there is ONE ‘number’ for each ‘point’ of the number line.

Three, Continuum Hypothesis is undecidable.

 

On the other hand, this math-TOE must have the followings:

One, number line has the cardinality of continuum; that is, between any {two points}, there are ‘infinite’ numbers between them.

Two, there are at least ‘TWO’ numbers for each ‘point’ of the number line. This is the key for the math-TOE.

Three, Continuum Hypothesis is false. I will not prove it here in a traditional way but will give an example (the bridge between two cardinalities).

 

First, we should renormalize the Godel’s incompleteness to regain the completeness in TOTALITY, see http://www.prequark.org/Create.htm . More detailed discussion is available at http://www.prebabel.info/lifesys.htm , completeness is regained in life-system via a renormalization process.

See http://www.prebabel.info/lifesys.htm

 

Second, there are at least two NUMBERs in each number-line POINT.

eggcarton182a

In the above graph, the ‘X’ point is the point A = 0. The point B is a moving point. When B moves to ‘X’, B = 12. That is, the point ‘X’ in fact has two numbers (0, 12)

In the above graph, the ‘X’ point is the point A = 0. The point B is a moving point. When B moves to ‘X’, B = 12. That is, the point ‘X’ in fact has two numbers (0, 12).

eggcarton197

Third, Continuum Hypothesis is false; there is a bridge between two infinities.

See http://www.prebabel.info/newmath.htm

Fourth, more entanglement:

One: 1/3 = 1/2 – 1/4 + 1/8 – 1/16 + 1/32 – 1/64 + 1/128 – 1/256 + 1/512 – 1/1024 + 1/2048 -… +…

For 1/3 (with an odd number as the denominator), it can only be “reached” with the sum of a sequence of numbers with only the even numbers as the denominators, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/05/source-of-spontaneous-symmetry-breaking_13.html and http://www.prebabel.info/newmath.htm

Two: prime numbers cannot be reached via multiplication with nature numbers.

Three, Fermat’s last theorem: the sum of two nature number cannot be reached via the same algebra operation.

 

Each point (number) is in fact entangled with (or reachable by/from) infinite number of other numbers. For example, 3 is linked to 1/3, {3^n, integers}, {3 ^ (-n), irrational}, etc.

This ‘number entanglement’ is the base for the third cardinality.

 

Fifth, the ‘HOLE’ point contains infinite number of geometrical points.

See http://www.prequark.org/Create.htm

 

With the above, we can reconstruct the NUMBER line as follow:

One, with the “number entanglement’, there are three cardinalities: countable, uncountable, the bridge (pseudo-uncountable).

 

Two, there are three ‘zeros’, in correspondence to the three infinities.

0 (c) = 1/countable

0 (u) = 1/uncountable

0 (p) = 1/pseudo-uncountable

 

Three, every POINT on the number line has three different NUMBERS.

4 + 0 (c) = C4

4 + 0 (u) = U4

4 + 0 (p) = P4

Yet, these three different ‘4’ cannot be distinguished algebraically or by any known math operations. That is, for some numbers A < > (not the same as) B, {A – B = 0}.

Now, there are two theorems:

Theorem 1: between two ‘points’ of number line, there are infinite ‘numbers’.

Theorem 2: between two ‘numbers’, there could have either infinite or finite numbers.

 

Four, this ‘number entanglement’ does show up by having three different kind of numbers:

First, with countable digits, such as 3 = 3.0000… (the c-number).

Second, with uncountable digits, such as Pi = 3.14… (the u-number)

Third, with pseudo-uncountable digits, such as 2 ^(1/2) = 1.414… (the p-number)

 

Five, with a seed number {1}, we can construct the entire number line (including three infinities) with a 7-color code system.

See http://www.prequark.org/Fermat.htm

 

Section five: The map of Final TOE

I have constructed the physics-TOE from the first principle together with two manifested equations, as below.

The first principle: {The essence of THIS universe is ‘NOTHINGNESS’, and it must remain to be nothingness}; definition of ‘nothingness’: {timelessness and immutability}

 

{Delta S = (i^n1, i^n2, i^n3) x C x Delta T} … Equation zero

F (unified) = K*ħ/ (delta S*delta T), K is a coefficient constant … Equation one

 

At this point, there is seemingly a major difference between math and physics.

Physics manifests IN time/space (the equation zero), and thus it is constrained in Energy (an expression of space/time). Thus, physics universe is a FINITUDE.

On the other hand, math manifests IN nothingness {the union of zero(s) and infinities)}.

Thus, the evolution of math has no physical constrain and can have infinite expressions while physics universe is unique (no multiverse). The physics-multiverse is denounced at here, http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/10/multiverse-bubbles-are-now-all-burst-by.html

While math evolution can lead to multi-math-universe (arbitrary constructions, such as the Grassman, Quaternion and Octonions numbers), its BASE (the basic lego pieces) is totally NATURE (total Platonism: basic math lego pieces are timeless entities, independent of the physical world and of the symbols used to represent them.) while the human-math is all about the ‘construction’ of ‘structures’.

As the Continuum Hypothesis is undecidable in the set theory, it is valid to select a third cardinality as a new axiom. But, no. This third cardinality is not a humanly selected axiom but is a part of nature’s math basic lego pieces. The reason for the insistence of this is that it is the only way to DERIVE the physics universe from math-universe.

By knowing the difference between the two, the only way to DERIVE the physics universe from math-universe is by transforming infinities into FINITUDE (same as creating something from nothing).

 

In math universe, the finite numbers are produced by the INVERSE operation of infinities. Yet, transforming infinites into physics-universe (a finitude), they (infinities) must be transformed into CONCRETE objects. And, this was done with two Platonic equations.

One: 1/3 = 1/2 – 1/4 + 1/8 – 1/16 + 1/32 – 1/64 + 1/128 – 1/256 + 1/512 – 1/1024 + 1/2048 -… +…  (trisecting an angle, taking countable steps); countable infinity is now transformed into a concrete object (A: angultron, a trisected angle)

 

Two: pi / 4 = 1 – 1/3 + 1/5 – 1/7 + 1/9 – 1/11 + 1/13 – … + … (with “countable” infinite steps to reach ‘uncountable digits’); uncountable infinity is now transformed into a unit circle (which gives rise to space/time equation zero; the 64 subspaces: 48 fermions and 16 dark energy).

See, http://www.prebabel.info/newmath.htm ,

http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/05/source-of-spontaneous-symmetry-breaking_13.html   and

http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/05/source-of-spontaneous-symmetry-breaking_11.html

 

That is, the math-universe (infinities) gives rise to the physics-universe. Of course, I will give more evidences to show this point.

One, the generalization of a circle is elliptic curve, and the fermion is described with elliptic curve.

eggcarton175

 

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/03/16/nothingness-vs-nothing-there-the-quantum-gravity/ .

 

Two, In addition to this {infinite to finitude} transformation, the key essence of these two equations is the {number entanglement: odd numbers can only be reached by even numbers, and vice versa}. This number entanglement is also the source for quantum (gravity) entanglement.

The essence of the math-universe to physics-universe transformation is all about infinities and the pathways of their concretization. That is, the key equation is,

A – b = 0, but A is not b.

This means that most of numbers are unreachable by finite means (arithmetic and algebra operations), as every *finite* number is the concretization of infinities, and it does carry a tail with infinite digits. That is, for any selected number *A*, it is surrounded by zillions (at least two) neighborhood numbers which are not distinguishable from the number *A* by all means. Thus, all those unreachable (indistinguishable from the number *A*) numbers must be color-coded, such as, b = A (red), = A (blue) or = A (green), etc.; that is, A (x) – b = 0.

Yet, there is always a number C, and

A – C > 0

The largest C cannot truly be determined with finite means. But, in principle, there is always *a* largest C in the physical universe *with* finite means (by measurement). That is,

A – C = g

Although we do not know the exact value for g, g is larger than 0 (g > 0). In the math universe, g is un-determined and can approach the concept of *continuity*. Yet, in the finite (physical) universe, this g becomes the smallest *deterministic unit*, distinguishing the number *C* from the number *A*. Indeed, for the *physical* universe, the g can actually be determined. Let,

X-axis as space, thus, the (delta S > =g).

Y-axis as momentum, the (delta P >= g).

So, (delta P) x (delta S) >= g^2

 

In physics, the photon is the medium for causality (see Constants of Nature, http://www.prequark.org/Constant.htm ). Thus, the smallest *deterministic* unit (for causality) in the physical universe is (photon / c), c is the light speed.  That is, in the physical universe, g^2 = (photon / c).

 

Yet, photon is the result of the interaction of e (electron).

So, g^2 = (photon /c) = (e^2/c), e is electric charge.

In the article “The Rise of Gravity and Electric Charge, (http://www.prequark.org/Gravity.htm )”, the e-charge is,

 

e (charge) = (L * C)^(1/2) = [(1/2) ħ * C]^(1/2); L the angular momentum, C light speed, ħ (Planck constant).

So, g^2 = ħ * C / C = ħ,

Thus, (delta P) x (delta S) > = g^2 >= ħ

Now, the uncertainty principle of physics is the direct consequence of the *Nature math*, the essence of infinities and of unreachable of numbers (the number entanglement), see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/10/multiverse-bubbles-are-now-all-burst-by.html

With this *derivation*, this new paradigm is fully verified. Yet, there is one very important additional point. That is, this major essence of the *unreachable numbers* is swept away in the human math by the concept of *continuity*. That is, the human math is completely unaware of this *Nature math*.

 

Three, this {number entanglement} is also the source for Fermat’s last theorem and abc-conjecture, and they are closely related to the elliptic curves. Fermat’s Last Theorem was proved by using elliptic curves but still not knowing the essence of the theorem: the entanglement caused by the colored numbers. In fact, this colored number is the SOURCE for the Fermat’s last theorem, see The Philosophical Meanings of Fermat’s Last Theorem, http://www.prequark.org/Fermat.htm .

 

Four, topologically a complex elliptic curve is a torus (can be defined with 7 color-codes) which is the BASE for consciousness via the Theorem of consciousness (Ringel-Youngs theorem).

eggcarton207

 

Section six: conclusion

One: Physics TOE

First principle: {The essence of THIS universe is ‘NOTHINGNESS’, and it must remain to be nothingness}; definition of ‘nothingness’: {timelessness and immutability}

Consequences:

First, Nature constants: Cosmology constant (https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/entropy-quantum-gravity-cosmology-constant/ ), Alpha = (1/137.03599…), etc.

Second, Planck CMB data (DE=69.22 % 、D=25.90 % 、V=4.86 %)

Third, expanding universe with acceleration

Fourth, SM fermion zoo

eggcarton211

See, http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html , https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/ and http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-fine-structure-constant-mystery.html

 

Two: Math-TOE — First principle in math as {nothingness = 1/infinit(ies)}

Consequences:

First, {colored number/number entanglement: 0 (c) = 1/countable; 0 (u) = 1/uncountable; 0 (p) = 1/pseudo-uncountable} with 7 colors {1, c-numbers, p-numbers, u-numbers, countable, uncountable, pseudo-uncountable}.

Second, Fermat’s last theorem, ABC conjecture, etc.

Third, describing physics TOE

Fourth, as a base for life TOE

eggcarton213

Math-universe is built up with arbitrary constructions by using a “lego base”, but this {Lego Base} is not a construction but is totally nature, expressed from the {First Principle} which gives rise to physics-universe too.

Math-universe is built up with arbitrary constructions by using a “lego base”, but this {Lego Base} is not a construction but is totally nature, expressed from the {First Principle} which gives rise to physics-universe too.

 

Three: Life TOE — Intelligence + Consciousness

First, definition of ‘intelligence’:

Necessary condition: there is a ‘counting’ device (counting strews, abacus or Turing computer).

Sufficient condition: the ability to distinguish self from others.

 

Second, definition of ‘consciousness’:

Necessary condition: the ability to distinguish self from others.

Sufficient condition: there is a ‘counting’ device (counting strews, abacus or Turing computer).

See http://www.prequark.org/Biolife.htm

 

Four, on a deeper level, physics TOE is derived from math by concretizing infinities.

eggcarton208

 

Five, physics/math/life are totally unified.

eggcarton210

 

See http://www.prequark.org/Create.htm

 

Note 1: in 2014, Max Tegmark published a book “Our Mathematical Universe” which promotes an idea of {the mathematical universe hypothesis (MUH)} with the central point as: {Our external physical reality is a mathematical structure. That is, the physical universe is mathematics in a well-defined sense, and “in those [worlds] complex enough to contain self-aware substructures [they] will subjectively perceive themselves as existing in a physically ‘real’ world”.} His key idea is similar to mine but with the following giant differences.

One, Tegmark does not and did not know any physics-TOE; so, his idea is just a philosophy, no way to unify physics and math.

 

Two, this math-TOE is totally based on the colored numbers (the third cardinality) and the number entanglement, and Tegmark does not have any idea of these.

 

Three, Tegmark reached his conclusion for multiverse from two confusions:

First, (1/Alpha) is not computable, at least not in countable steps, and this is absolutely wrong.

Second, that there are unlimited (if not infinite) math-structures in comparison to a unique physical universe. In my math-TOE, math and physics have the same BASE lego set while physics manifests in the arrow of time (being constrained by energy) while math manifests in the essence of nature (the timelessness). The multiverse bullcrap is denounced in the article {Multiverse bubbles are now all burst by the math of Nature, http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/10/multiverse-bubbles-are-now-all-burst-by.html }.

 

Note 2: this article is written as a part of presentation {(Modeling universe by G-string theory) at “Strings 2016 (http://ymsc.tsinghua.edu.cn:8090/strings/ )” held at Tsinghua University, Beijing China (from August 1 to 5, 2016)} and will be handed out as handout at {The 7th International Congress of Chinese Mathematicians (ICCM 2016),  held from Aug. 6 to Aug. 11, 2016 in Beijing} by my colleague Dr. Li xiaojian (Professor of North China University of Technology, Beijing, 100144, China).

 

Note added on August 7, 2016 (after the new LHC 2016 data was released):

My Protégé Dr. Li xiaojian (Professor of North China University of Technology, Beijing, 100144, China) discussed “The Final Total TOE” with Dr. David Gross (Nobel laureate) on August 5, 2016; see photos below.

“The Final Total TOE” was presented at {Strings 2016 conference (http://ymsc.tsinghua.edu.cn:8090/strings/ )} held at Tsinghua University, Beijing China (from August 1 to 5, 2016), by my Protégé Dr. Li xiaojian too.  The key points of this presentation is available at https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/01/the-final-total-toe-theory-of-everything/ .

 

 

 

 

Note (added on August 29, 2016):

The current (2016) mainstream physics status is this: #PostCheckmateTTF (Post Checkmate temper tantrum fit).

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/26/vision-eulogy-the-post-checkmate-temper-tantrum-fit/

 Copyright © August 2016 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

 

Alice/Bob paradox = Sum {wrong (i)}

See note (at the end of this article) about the LIGO announcement on June 15, 2016.

For any genuine paradox (G-paradox), it must have two FACTs which lead to CONTRADICTORY results.

In Chapter three of {The Divine Constitution (ISBN 0916713067, 9780916713065, see https://books.google.com/books?id=8MMzPwAACAAJ&dq=inauthor:%22Gong+Jeh-Tween%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9oDyT9z8E-PO2wWznf2fAg )}, it states: every G-paradox (such as, the Grelling autological paradox, Cantor’s paradox, Russell set paradox, etc.) can be resolved in two ways.

One, there must be a higher symmetry which is able to unify the contradiction.

Two, the contradiction can always be removed by further symmetry breaking.

 

However, for a wrong-paradox, it is defined with the following equation:

Sum (fact (i)) + sum (error (i)) = wrong-paradox

For, i = {physicists}

 

I: A brief history

With this definition, we can now review the {Alice/Bob (black hole information) paradox}.

First, some facts.

One, according to GR (general relativity), some stars (with about 3 times of Sun’s mass, 3 M☉ (the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit)) would collapse into a stellar black hole (a region that even lights cannot get out or escape) which has an event horizon (having Schwarzschild radius).

Two, this stellar black hole should be ‘hairless’, that is, having only three macro-parameters (mass, electric charge, and angular momentum) without any other variables (hairs).

 

Note 1, at this point, there is no paradox. This stellar black hole is a burial site for a once living star while all the quantum information of the star were buried (as a dead skeleton) but not lost.

 

Yet, there is i = 1 (Stephen Hawking), and he made the following CLAIMs.

One, black hole is a black body, and thus it should have THERMAL-radiation (photons).

Two, this thermal radiation of black hole will lead to the eventual TOTAL evaporation of the black hole.

Three, this thermal radiation is not a carrier for any dead-skeleton (information).

 

So, the conclusion is that when this burial site (black hole) is totally evaporated, no dead-skeleton can be found while they were not carried out by the outgoing vapors (the thermal radiation, the photons). So, the dead-skeleton is simply lost (the black hole information paradox). But, this conclusion is in conflict (contradicting) with the laws of quantum mechanics.

 

Now, we have a ‘dead-skeleton lost’ paradox.

Then, there are i = 2 (Leonard Susskind and Larus Thorlacius, and some others), and they made the following CLAIMs.

One, the vapors are virtual particle pairs (Alice and Bob, not thermal photons) which are constantly being created near the horizon of the black hole, and one of them (always Alice) falls into the hole while Bob escapes.

Two, the escaping Bob will eventually lead to the TOTAL evaporation of that black hole.

Three, as Alice and Bob are entangled twins (only different in sex), all information of doomed Alice can be recovered from Bob.

 

The conclusion: although Alice’s dead-skeleton was lost forever, her SOUL is preserved in her twin-brother Bob via the quantum entanglement. So, there is no ‘dead-skeleton (information) lost’ paradox.

 

eggcarton109

 

Note: Stephen Hawking conceded to be wrong  for stirring up this ‘dead-skeleton lost’- paradox at this point.

 

Finally, there is i = 3 (Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski, and James Sully), and they CLAIMed the followings.

One, Alice was not killed in vain, as she puffs out a bit blue light during her last breath (of course in accordance to the law of GR), and that little blue light made the black hole’s event horizon a bit bluer.

Two, after enough (when about half of the black hole has evaporated) blue light accumulated, the event horizon becomes a firewall for any new infalling Alice who will be fried and never be able to go into the hole. That is, in all practical senses, the HOLE has disappeared (nothing can fall in anymore).

 

Questions:

Is the un-evaporated half-black hole still there (as a reality)?

If it is still there, how can it evaporate from this point on?

If it keeps evaporating somehow, what happen to the remaining ‘dead skeleton”? As the complementarity scheme can no longer work for firewall enclosed black hole, is the remaining ‘dead skeleton” lost or not?

 

Well, the SHOW must keep going. So, there is i = 4 (Stephen Hawking, Andrew Strominger,  Malcolm J. Perry). Of course, the easiest way out for all those wrongs is to denounce the ‘no-hair’-theorem. So, they now CLAIM that all black holes have ‘HAIRs’.

 

But, but, but, LIGO just announced that it observed ‘gravitational wave’ which was produced by the collision of two black holes. Yet, in its calculation (from and with that observed gravitational wave), these two colliding black holes have ‘NO-HAIRs’. Furthermore, the amount of Hawking block hole hairs might not be ENOUGH to carry all the dead-skeleton.

 

For a (any) stellar black hole, it has in fact NO Hawking THERMAL radiation in any practical sense, as the apparent temperature of black hole is much colder than the ambient temperature (about 2.7 Kelvin). That is, instead of radiating out, a (any) stellar black hole will absorb thermal radiation from its surroundings. No (absolutely not) stellar black hole formed from the supernova process can evaporate up to now or in a foreseeable future (at least twice the life time of this universe).

 

Then, why is this ‘dead-skeleton’ paradox still going?

Well, there could be some primordial black holes (result of Big Bang, not from the supernova process) which have much smaller mass. And, the black hole temperature is inversely proportional to its mass. To have a black hole temperature larger than 2.7 K (and be able to evaporate), it would need a mass less than the Moon, and such a black hole would have a diameter of less than a tenth of a millimeter, and it can evaporate by now. During its last stage of evaporation, a primordial black hole can give out burst of gamma rays, which should be detectable. Searches for such flashes have proven unsuccessful and provide stringent limits on the possibility of existence of low mass primordial black holes. However, NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope launched in 2008 will continue the search for these flashes.

 

If the prospect of the primordial black holes is not good, again, why is this ‘dead-skeleton’ paradox still going?

Well, there should have some kind of micro-black holes according to the M-string theory. For a black hole of mass 1 TeV/c2, it could be detected at LHC (Run I). But, no such a micro-black hole was found thus far, including the LHC (Run II) data thus far.

Note: if any SUSY particle with mass over 1.5 Tev., it could turn into a black hole and should radiate out easily detectable gamma ray flashes. But no such flashes are detected thus far.

 

Again, why is this ‘dead-skeleton (information)’ paradox still going?

They said: there are some great discoveries during the above history.

One, a new kind of entropy:

Hawking showed under general conditions that the total area of the event horizons of any collection of classical black holes can never decrease, even if they collide and merge. This becomes the second law of black hole mechanics, remarkably SIMILAR to the second law of thermodynamics. With the mass acting as energy, the surface gravity as temperature and the area as entropy, there is a new type of entropy.

eggcarton112

This is the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy (S) of a black hole, which depends on the area of the black hole (A). The constants are the speed of light (c), the Boltzmann constant (k),Newton’s constant (G), and the reduced Planck constant (ħ).

In classical entropy, black holes should have near-zero entropy. But with this new type of entropy, Bekenstein claimed that black holes are maximum entropy objects—that they have more entropy than anything else in the same volume.

 

Two, with this new entropy, Gerard ‘t Hooft and Leonard Susskind discovered the holographic principle, which suggests that anything that happens in a volume of spacetime can be described by data on the boundary of that volume.

 

Three, with the holographic principle, Juan Maldacena discovered the AdS/CFT correspondence in 1997. This AdS/CFT correspondence becomes lifesaver for M-string theory on its issue of compactification.

 

Today, this AdS/CFT correspondence is the only pathway for the beyond the Standard Model physics for the mainstream physics.

 

II: A detailed review

The above is a brief history for the modern physics in the last 40 years. Is this history leading to a great future? Or, is it totally wrong?

If I do not have a different PATHWAY from the above wrong one, I will not have the right to call it wrong. If my pathway is not correct, I will not have the right to call other’s wrong. The comparison is very simple.

Who can derive all nature constants (Cabibbo/Weinberg angles, Alpha, Cosmology Constant, etc.) and the Planck CMB data?

No one in the above history (the mainstream) can, but I can: see,

https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/ and

https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/05/15/paul-steinhardts-remorse-popperianism-and-beauty-contest/  (also see recently added note below).

 

With these comparisons, there is no more argument about, the scientific methodology or else. And now, I have the right to call a spade a spade. The history of this ‘information paradox’ is totally on a wrong path.

 

Before showing the correct PATHWAY, I will point out a few Errors in the above history first.

Error one, Hawking radiation was all about thermal photons, and it is practically meaningless.

Error two, black hole will not evaporate with the Alice/Bob drama. Bob is not a part of the ‘PRINCIPLE’ in any black hole’s bank account; that is, the escape of Bob will not take any energy away from black hole. Even if this Alice/Bob drama were paid for with the ‘principle’ of the black hole, there is no physics law demands that Alice must always carry the ‘negative’ energy (which reduces the ‘principle’ of the black hole). Alice being a particle (not just photon), she carries some rest mass. So, if she does not provide more mass to the black hole, this Alice/Bob drama will at least not cause evaporation of black hole at all.

eggcarton100

 

Error three, if the black hole does evaporate, its final Schwarzschild radius will go to zero, and its entropy ‘AERA’ will become zero too. That is, Hawking’s ‘area’ law of black hole is wrong.

 

The correct path is only about one issue. What is gravity?

Gravity is very simple; it moves the Pepsi can (sits on my desk at REST) from {[here, now] to [here, next]}. And, it takes a force F (gravity) to do it.

F (gravity) = K*ħ/ (delta S*delta T), K is a coefficient constant.

Then, quantum principle emerges from this F (gravity). See http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html for details.

 

Of course, we can make more detailed definition for gravity as follows.

One, gravity must be based on particle physics, as only particles are carrying mass (the only parameter for gravity). Both Newtonian gravity and General Relativity have nothing to do with particle physics, and thus they are wrong gravity theories. See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/03/16/nothingness-vs-nothing-there-the-quantum-gravity/

Two, the strength of gravity between any TWO objects is described with Newtonian gravity equation (GmM/r^2).

Three, gravity must be both instantaneous and simultaneous (to ALL particles in this universe). Gravity is DEFINITEly not transmitted with light speed, although the gravitational wave (an attribute of gravity) is. Gravity by all means is not ‘local’. But, the strength of gravity for the Pepsi can which sits on my desk at rest is:

F (Pepsi gravity) = Gm {sum [M(i)/r(i)^2]}  ….. Equation A

i represents the particles of the entire universe, except the Pepsi.

eggcarton105

 

The Pepsi can is sitting on my desk (a spot on the world sheet) at rest, and it (Pepsi can) is interacting with ALL other particles in this universe {which consists of two parts: the world sheet (real universe) and a Ghost point}. That is, this Pepsi can is linked to all other particles of this universe in two pathways:

One, in the real (matter) world, the distance between it and other particles is r(i) > {a Planck length}. So, the gravitational interaction strength between them is calculated with the Newtonian gravity equation.

Two, it (Pepsi can) is linked to all other particles via the Ghost point, and the distance between it and all other particles is R(i) = {a Planck length} for all “i”.

 

So, the gravity STRENGTH for Pepsi can is calculated with Equation A.

The TIME for the gravity transmission is a {Planck time}, practically instantaneously.

While the gravity of ONE object (such as a Pepsi can) is calculated with Equation A, and the gravity transmission is via ‘Planck time’, the true definition for gravity is that it moves the entire universe from {now to next}. See graph below and http://www.prequark.org/Gravity.htm for details.

 

eggcarton104a

 

Note:

There are three different gravity theories.

One, Newtonian gravity, attractive force for mass.

Two, space-time sheet curvature about mass, the GR (General Relativity).

Three, moving the entire universe from {(here now) to (here (next), next)}, and this is {dark energy} all about, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html , and this force is

 F = ħ/ (delta S x delta T)

The AdS/CFT correspondence is also the direct consequence of the above mechanism.

 

III: Paradox no more!

Now, we can address the ‘information’ issue in two ways.

One, every bit of information of this universe since its inception (Big Bang) is recorded with a detailed bookkeeping, the Cosmology Constant (CC). By comparing the calculated CC and the measurement, we will know whether there is any information loss. My calculation shows that there is no information loss at all, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/entropy-quantum-gravity-cosmology-constant/ .

Two, black hole is not formed via the Alice/Bob drama. How can a ‘fringe’-drama dig into the essence? Only by knowing exactly of how black hole is formed, we can then discuss its eventual death (if any).

In general, we said that gravitational collapse occurs when an object’s internal pressure is insufficient to resist the object’s own gravity. This statement is not wrong but is misleading, and it did mislead.

 

What is its internal pressure?

What is its own gravity?

 

I will make these more clear with two concepts.

One, {free particle}:

In the case of our Sun, the entire space (a BOX) that a given atom (hydrogen atom, etc.) in its lifetime roamed in is viewed as a free particle (the box, not the atom). This free particle (the box) might be a cube with 100 miles on its sides, and it contains billions atoms. For every free particle (the box), it is viewed as a at rest (not moving) particle.

Definition: if a NET force on a particle = zero, it is a free particle.

That is, a {free particle} is always at rest (in terms of the box), as that box does not receive any external force and does not project out any force.

Theorem one: for a particle in a compact object, it is a free particle

Corollary one: the water molecular in the ice-lattice is a free particle.

So, a neutron inside of a neutron star is a free particle.

 

Two, tidal force:

For a rod (or a box) with one meter long, [(rB – rA) = 1 meter], there is a tidal force on this rod (or box) if it (the box) is not a free particle of a compact object (the source of the tidal gravity),

Tidal force of (A, B) = F(r) – F(r-1) = Tf(A, B)

The gravity force for A and B are:

F(A) = F(r), r is the distance of point A to the center of the packed object.

F(B) = F(r + 1), one meter farther away from the center.

 

If the gravity tidal force of a compact object on a box (A, B) is smaller (<) than the structure binding force of the box (hydrogen atom), it could form stars, as it cannot tear atoms apart.

If the gravity tidal force of a compact object on a box (A, B) is larger (>) than the structure binding force of the box (hydrogen atom), then the atoms will be pulled apart. In this case, it most likely becomes a ‘neutron’ star.

When the gravity tidal force of a compact object on a box (neutron) is larger (>) than the structure binding force of neutron, it pulls neutrons apart and becomes a black hole. Of course, most of black holes are formed without going through the neutron star stage.

 

So, basically, there are, at least, three types of stars.

One, ‘proton’ star (PS): like our Sun which is 99.99% composed of ‘hydrogen atom (containing proton)”

Two, ‘neutron’ star (NS)

Three, ‘black hole’ (BH)

 

The diameter of PS (like Sun) is in average of ‘one million’ miles, and mostly composed of protons (hydrogen atom). The tidal force of Sun is not big enough to break up the hydrogen atom. Yet, the nuclear fusion produces enough ‘thermal-energy’ to balance the gravitation force of the Sun. So, it has a huge diameter.

When the hydrogens are all burnt out, the helium fusion produces much less thermo-energy, the gravitation force will get the upper hand and pull the matter inward. It collapses, with a few pathways.

Type I Supernova: results a white dwarf star, the carbon fusion begins to support a radius about 7000km (about the size of Earth). Yet, it is still a ‘proton’ star.

Type II Supernova: When the tidal force is big enough to break up hydrogen or helium atoms, it collapses as a neutron star with the average radius of (1 to 10 miles), a size of a small city. All atoms are pulled apart, and no proton can survive.

 

If the tidal force is strong enough to break up ‘neutron’, it becomes ‘black hole’ with Schwarzschild radius about 10 miles for a 3-solar-mass black hole. All hadron particles are pulled apart.

 

Then, what is inside of the black hole?

The wrong way of saying says that black hole converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. Other wrong way says that there could be the quark/gluon plasma.

 

In the classic theory, black hole is defined with a Schwarzschild radius which marks an event horizon. However, in this G-string-gravity theory, black hole is formed by tearing apart all particles via the spaghettification.

 

eggcarton111

 

After this spaghettification, all particles are torn apart and become strings.

In M-string theory, those strings form the branes.

In G-string theory, those quark/lepton-strings (line-string) curl up into ring-strings, which has zero area and zero volume.

The big difference between G-string and M-string is that G-string has ‘internal’ structure (described with A, V). Those quark/lepton G-strings are ‘line’-strings. When they become ring-strings, they are no different from the M-ring-strings, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/11/m-theory-toe-if-and-only-if-it-adds-two.html .

 

That is, all M-string’s formula do work for G-string. In the black hole, G-string will become an M-ring-string.

Note: without the internal structure, M-string is unable to describe the universe outside of the black hole and is a failed theory, see https://medium.com/@Tienzen/indeed-the-m-string-theory-is-a-total-bullcrap-for-the-following-reasons-ca9a44931938#.5lav4kdh8 .

When G-quark/lepton-string (line-string) curls up into a ring-string, the quark color charge and generations are neutralized (not destroyed). So, when a particle (neutron, proton, lepton or else) falls into a black hole, it becomes a ring-string, with all charges neutralized but conserved. When they are radiated out later (if any), the rings straighten back up to regain their charges. That is, no information lost, nor gained.

 

There are four differences between this G-string description and the classic one.

One, instead of an event horizon with Schwarzschild radius, there is a spaghettification zone. As soon as a particle (or else) is spaghettified, it breaks up into G-ring-strings.

Two, the Schwarzschild description of black hole has a ‘singularity’ at the CENTER of the Schwarzschild sphere. But, in this G-string description, each ring-string is a ‘singularity’ of itself, and there is no singularity at the center of anywhere.

Three, each ring-string is a free particle inside of the black hole. That is, there is no longer any free-falling or tidal gravity on this ring-string when it passes the event horizon.

Four, the event horizon is the innermost circle of this spaghettification zone.

 

So, ‘quantum gravity’ is not about the gravity between neutrons in the neutron star!

Gravity is the force which MOVEs this entire universe with quantum units, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html and the quantum principle is the emergent of gravity.

 

Again, every particle in a compact object (solid ball, star, etc.) is a free particle.

So, the gravity of a particle in a compact object EQUALs to all particles in that compact object in accordance to the Equation A.

And, the neutron at the center of the neutron star sees the same gravity as the neutron at the edge.

 

IV: Conclusion

This information issue is addressed in two ways.

One, the bookkeeping, the calculation of the Cosmology Constant.

Two, the internal structure of the black hole, all ring-strings which still carry the mass and electric charge, but all other information is stored away.

Finally, the holographic principle is the direct consequence of the moving (from now (t1) to next (t2)) universe.

 

Note (added on June 10, 2016):

Black holes are only burial sites for cosmological objects and play minimal role in the structure of the cosmos, which is ruled by {dark energy, dark mass and visible mass}.

The recent (2016) study done by (Adam G. Riess, Lucas M. Macri, Samantha L. Hoffmann, Dan Scolnic, etc.) shows that the Local value of the Hubble Constant is about 9% higher than the Planck CMB data (2015) estimation.

The Local Value of the Hubble Constant: H0 (now, later universe) = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s−1 Mpc−1

The Planck CMB data (Using ΛCDM with Neff = 3) estimation: H0 (early universe) = 66.93 ± 0.62 km s−1 Mpc−1

The ratio {H0 (now)/H0 (old, CMB)} = {73.24/66.93} = 1.0942

So, H0 (now) is 9.4% higher than the H0 (old, at CMB).

This result implies that there is a ‘dark radiation’ (or Neff = 3.4) becoming dark energy and making the universe expanding faster than the CMB period.

See, http://news.berkeley.edu/2016/06/02/universe-expanding-faster-than-expected/ ]

This ‘dark radiation’ was PREDICTed long ago with G-string gravity model, see the graph below.

eggcarton115

Dark energy 1 = X; dark energy 2 = Y; Mass (visible + dark) = Z; Dark radiation (dark mass melting into dark energy ratio): W = 9%

 

Note: LIGO announced (on June 15, 2016) for the observation of 2nd set of black hole merges. Professor Matt Strassler commented: Incidentally, the question of whether they might form the dark matter of the universe has been raised; it’s still a long-shot idea, since there are arguments against it for black holes of this size, but seeing these merger rates one has to reconsider those arguments carefully and keep an open mind about the evidence. See, https://profmattstrassler.com/2016/06/15/ligo-detects-a-second-merger-of-black-holes/ .

In addition to Strassler’s comment, I would like to point out three issues.

One, with this rate of observation, the population of these twin black holes can be estimated. And, the supernova process might not be able to support such a population during the lifetime of THIS universe. The supernova process (SP) is well understood for producing a single black hole. The mechanism for producing twin black holes via SP is not well understood.

 

Two, if these twin black holes are primordial black holes, then there must have three sub-issues.

First, its population density must be very high. And, there is no reason for favoring only the twin. And, their production mechanism is totally unknown.

Second, if these are primordial black holes, they must have some signatures in the CMB data, as they are much colder than the CMB ambient temperature.

Third, if a primordial black hole can have over 30 M☉ mass, then the entire ‘inflation’ idea will be in jeopardy.

 

Three, gravitation WAVE is a wave; that is, it is in RIPPLEs. Yet, thus far, LIGO only detected a single silver bullet (with three contours) for each GW. Until we can detect more than one ripple of the same GW, …

 

Yes, gravitational wave is a reality in G-string gravity. But, LIGO is saying much more than it actually knows.

 

Also see, Final TOE (theory of everything), https://medium.com/@Tienzen/final-toe-theory-of-everything-9b12ec7c0c9f#.ovdjer2yy

 

Note (added on August 29, 2016):

The current (2016) mainstream physics status is this: #PostCheckmateTTF (Post Checkmate temper tantrum fit).

See https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/08/26/vision-eulogy-the-post-checkmate-temper-tantrum-fit/

 Copyright © May 2016 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Creation of Life

Anthropic principle (AP) has been grossly misused by the multiverse mania. In this article, AP means that the physics laws of nature (not humanly discovered physics) must give rise to life, in accordance to the “Large Complex System Principle” (LCSP) —- there is a set principles which govern all large complex systems regardless of whatever those systems are, a number set, a physics set, a life set or a vocabulary set.

Corollary of LCSP (CLCSP) — the laws or principles of a “large complex system x” will have their correspondent laws and principles in a “large complex system y.”

 

There are many creations:

Physics laws,

Math universe,

Life universe,

Linguistics universe,

All the above creations are isomorphic to one another. Thus, if we understand one creation, we will know all creations.

 

I have showed the creation of physics laws in its entirety, with the single framework of {nothing to something} transformation with the 4-time-dimensions mechanism.

 

timelessness

 

From this single framework, I have DERIVED (not discovered) the followings:

 

One, theoretical calculation of Cabibbo and Weinberg angles, http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/10/theoretical-calculation-of-cabibbo-and.html

Two, theoretical calculation of Alpha (electron fine structure constant), http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-fine-structure-constant-mystery.html

Three, theoretical calculation for Planck CMB data (dark energy, dark mass, visible mass), https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/

Four, theoretical calculation for Cosmology constant (Λ), https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/entropy-quantum-gravity-cosmology-constant/

Five, theoretical calculation for the mass of the newly discovered boson (125.46 Gev.), https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/before-lhc-run-2-begins-enough-jeh-tween-gong

Six, a description  of Quantum gravity, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/03/16/nothingness-vs-nothing-there-the-quantum-gravity/

Seven, a new physics epistemology, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/05/15/paul-steinhardts-remorse-popperianism-and-beauty-contest/

 

See {The final TOE} for details, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/01/18/the-final-toe-theory-of-everything/

 

I also showed the total nonsense-ness of the followings:

Multiverse bullcrap, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/10/multiverse-bubbles-are-now-all-burst-by.html

M-string bullcrap, see https://medium.com/@Tienzen/indeed-the-m-string-theory-is-a-total-bullcrap-for-the-following-reasons-ca9a44931938#.p0ifq6nzd

The SUSY bullcrap, see https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/try-again-part-2-susy-jeh-tween-gong

 

With the physics laws creation is now done, I will show the mechanism of creation of Life.

Phenomenologically, the life encompasses some unique attributes:

One, reproduction

Two, metabolism

But, in order to utilize the Corollary of LCSP (CLCSP), I will link the laws of life to the laws of physics with a common parameter, the information.

 

All systems have information (such as thermo-systems) but they evolve only in accordance to the 2nd law entropic-ly. On the other hand, life ‘processes’ information with intension for getting the best beneficial outcomes.

So, there are two special attributes for life:

One, intension (the will)

Two, the processing information ability (the computation)

 

I will show that these two special attributes are the base for {intelligence and consciousness}, as I will define:

One, intelligence,

Necessary condition: having a counting device (counting straws, abacus, Turing computer, etc.)

Sufficient condition: having the ability to distinguish SELF from all others.

 

Two, consciousness,

Necessary condition: having the ability to distinguish SELF from all others.

Sufficient condition: having a counting device (counting straws, abacus, Turing computer, etc.)

 

With these, I must show the followings:

One, there is a counting device embedded in the laws of physics

Two, the ability to distinguish self from others is also embedded in the laws of physics.

Three, with intelligence and consciousness, they give rise  to the WILL (intension).

Four, a device (such as human brain) to carry out this {intelligence/consciousness} operations.

Five, a mechanism to construct this device (the evolution process).

 

So, here they are.

One, definition of intelligence, see http://www.prebabel.info/aintel.htm

Two, the ‘field’ that ‘intelligence’ roams on (or lives in), see http://www.prebabel.info/lifesys.htm

Three, the source for the ability to distinguish self from others, see http://www.chinese-word-roots.org/cwr018.htm

Four, intelligent machine, see http://www.prequark.org/inte001.htm

 

eggcarton99

 

Five, the evolution process to get this intelligent machines, see http://sexevolution.wikia.com/wiki/Sexevolution_Wiki

Six, the embedded Turing computer in the laws of physics, see http://www.prequark.org/Biolife.htm

 

With the above,

One, I have showed that life is a ‘WILL’, with spontaneous intelligence and consciousness.

Two, I have also showed the detailed embedment of computing device and the framework for distinguishing each (all) identity(ies).

Three, I further have showed the detailed framework for giving rise to intelligence/consciousness, the human brain.

Four, I have showed the detailed mechanism for evolution.

 

So, life is constrained and confined by the laws of physics and theorems of topology. While being the rulers of constrain and confinement for life, the laws of physics and theorems of topology are also providing zillions (unbounded many) options; that is, the ‘nature options’. Then, life has intelligence and can choose the best option from a set of ‘nature options’. There is no ‘nature selection’ which is not only wrong but is a total bullcrap. So, the most important point is to weed out the bullcraps: see,

Deaths of two Gods, https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/20/deaths-of-two-gods/

Darwin’s original work is a mediocre scientific work (being mostly wrong). Although the most later works (such as, genetics, horizontal gene transfer, genetic drift, genetic assimilation, punctuated equilibrium, molecular biology, etc.) are scientifically correct, they are all in conflict with or in contradiction to the Darwinianism. But, they are synthesized into MES (modern evolutionary synthesis, by swept those contradictions under the synthesizing carpet) for the reason of trying to elevate Darwinianism (especially the nature selection) to the status of G0d in order to fight against the Christian God. And, this is the worst shamelessness in human history.

More details, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2014/10/11/intelligent-evolution/ .

Now, the details of the creation of life are complete.

Life universe arose with two steps: creation and evolution.

First, creation: physics laws and theorems of topology provides zillions preset (allowed) STRUCTUREs for the life atoms (amino acids and proteins) to form the FIRST generation of DNA and body shapes, the ‘nature options’. That is, the arising out of lives is in accordance to the rules of the game (preset by the laws of physics and theorem of topology, such as, the rules of life-game of glider etc.). That the lego pieces (A, C, T, G) fall into the predetermined stable structure (double helix, etc.)  is one example. Another example will be the rise of ‘human-like-brain’, see http://www.prequark.org/inte001.htm .

 

Second, evolution: with two mechanisms and one accelerator.

M1, the direct interaction between lives, such as the eukaryote-rising-mechanism (ERM), and something NEW is produced.

M2, adaptation and advancing with ‘intelligence’: the species intelligence, see http://sexevolution.wikia.com/wiki/Species_Intelligence_and_its_Internal_Sanction . Species is the ‘intelligence’ carrier for all lives which are seemingly lacking a human-like intelligence for its members, the individual organism, such as single cell organism or even worms. Of course, the “intelligence” is the most powerful evolution force for the very complex life-systems.

A1, the accelerator: the mass extinction reshuffles the players in the ecosphere, weeding out the brutal force and helping the advancements of more intelligent species.

 

Now,

One, the creation and evolution mechanisms are clearly described. Life is created with ‘NATURE OPTIONS’. Evolution is defined with two mechanisms and one accelerator.

Two, life is now clearly defined as a ‘will’.

Three, the bases for this ‘will’ are intelligence and consciousness, and both are precisely defined.

Four, the rising mechanisms for intelligence and consciousness are precisely described, and they are linked to the laws of physics.

Five, the ‘nature selection’ bullcrap of Darwinianism is denounced.

 

Entropy: Quantum Gravity: Cosmology Constant

 

Section one: Quantum gravity

 

Gravity is all about mass. But, masses are carried by fermions, the quantum particles.

So, any gravity theory which is not based on particle theory is not correct, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/03/16/nothingness-vs-nothing-there-the-quantum-gravity/ .

 

Most of mainstream ‘quantum gravity’ theories try to quantize the GR (General Relativity) spacetime sheet in one way or another (discrete space or time, fixed coupling constants, etc.), such as those theories below.

Loop Quantum Gravity: space itself is discrete

Asymptotically Safe Gravity: pick a high-energy fixed point for the coupling constant

Causal Dynamical Triangulations: It’s similar to LQG in that space itself is discrete, but time must be discrete as well!

 

On the other hand, the M-string quantum gravity does describe the spacetime sheet with particles (the M-strings). But, the M-string itself does not have a ‘mass-rising’ mechanism of its own but borrows the {Higgs Nonsense} which is a total bullcrap, see https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/before-lhc-run-2-begins-enough-jeh-tween-gong ; that is, M-string quantum gravity is just a hallow hype.

 

Gravity is all about moving the ‘entire universe’ from {[HERE (now), NOW] to [HERE (next), Next]}, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html . This accelerates the expansion of universe and gives rise to the ‘uncertainty principle’.

 

Yet, this ‘arrow of time’ is the result of {nothing to something transformation} process, the answer for {why is there something rather than nothing?}

The {Nothingness} is defined as {timelessness and immutability}.

The timelessness is expressed with 4-real/ghost time dimensions.

 

timelessness

 

That is, at every t, it is in fact timelessness in essence. And, this is expressed with an equation ‘zero’.

Delta S = (i^n1, i^n2, i^3) C delta T, {C, light speed; S, space; T, time; n1, n2, n3 take the value (0, 1, 2, 3)} … equation ‘zero’

 

With this equation, 64 subspaces are created; 48 are particles (fermions), and 16 are spacetime (dark energy), see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/48-exact-number-for-number-of.html and https://medium.com/@Tienzen/here-is-the-correct-answer-5d1a392f700#.a0jmn237w .

 

The moving of this 4-real/ghost time dimensions forms a {garden hose} as below.

 

eggcarton37

 

This {garden hose} universe has eleven (11) dimensions:

One, the external space dimensions (3)

Two, the internal (of hose) space dimensions (3)

Three, the real/ghost time dimensions (4)

Four, the ‘nothingness’ which surrounds the entire {garden hose) is (1)

So, the total = 3 + 3 + 4 + 1 = 11

 

Although there are spatial dimensions, the definition for the dimensions here is a ‘linguistic’ definition, the ‘codes’ which are needed to describe a system (such as universe), see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/origin-of-spatial-dimensions-and.html . That is, 11 codes are enough to DESCRIBE this universe: 4-spacetime dimension and 7 color-codes (Red, Yellow, Blue, White, G1, G2, G3). It is the same for the {life universe}: (A, G, T, C, M (male), F (female), K (kids)).

 

With the {framework} being set up, the next is to set up the measuring rulers {ħ (Planck constant), C (light speed)}.

Then these rulers must be locked up: e (electric charge) = F (ħ, C), the first lock.

A second lock is need: Alpha = F (e, ħ, C)

With these two locks and the fixed framework, this universe is set FREE for its evolution, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/arbitrariness-and-final-unification-in.html .

 

Of course, the litmus test for the above is that the nature constants and parameters must be derived from the above scheme.

Cabibbo and Weinberg angles, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/10/theoretical-calculation-of-cabibbo-and.html

 

Alpha calculation, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2012/04/alpha-fine-structure-constant-mystery.html .

 

For Planck CMB data, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/

 

 

Section two: about entropy

 

Entropy was initially defined as a macro-thermo-phenomena, as lack of order or predictability; gradual decline into disorder with the following equation, with the dimension of energy divided by temperature, which has a unit of joules per kelvin (J K−1).

 

eggcarton53

 

In the modern microscopic interpretation of entropy in statistical mechanics, entropy is the amount of additional information needed to specify the exact physical state of a system, given its thermodynamic specification. Understanding the role of thermodynamic entropy in various processes requires an understanding of how and why that information changes as the system evolves from its initial to its final condition. Again, it is often said that entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, or of our lack of information about it.

 

This statistical entropy is expressed as Boltzmann’s entropy equation (S = k log W), and the ‘S’ is an irreducible essence of any large ‘system’. Then, the concept of entropy is spreading into many (almost all) systems, especially the ‘information’ system. Again, it is all about the inherent tendency of any system towards the dissipation of useful energy or information.

 

So, entropy is thus far a phenomenological parameter without a deep connections to the other fundamental laws of physics (SM particles theory and gravity). Yet, very recently, there is a ‘quantum gravity’ which is based on entropy: the  entropic gravity (EG), which views that gravity was not a fundamental force, but rather emerged as a phenomenon linked to entropy. Unfortunately, those EG physicists still view the entropy with the above phenomenological sense, not knowing the true ‘essence’ of entropy. Thus, there is no chance for EG to success.

 

For constructing any system (a universe or else), it needs three departments.

D-one, the big framework: the 11 dimensions, the nothing to something transformation.

D-two, the locked measuring rulers.

D-three, a bookkeeper.

 

Entropy is the result of the bookkeeping.

This bookkeeping is all about the ‘action count’.

 

State one, a particle is at location (1), no action

State two, that particle moves to location (2), action one (1)

State three, that particle moves back to location (1), action (2)

 

State one and state three have the identical ‘physical’ states, but the action count for them is different. And, the count is an arrow, always in the increase, a true arrow. In a big system (especially a thermo-system), the measurement of the action count (entropy) is described with the Boltzmann’s entropy equation.

 

So, the arrow of time and the arrow of entropy are totally different arrows.

But, but, but, when a Pepsi can sits on my desk without any movement in the past 10 years, is there any action count for it? The answer is big YES in this G-string quantum gravity, as it is in fact moving in ‘time’, and every movement is an action. So, many people is confusing about that the two arrows are the same arrow. No, they are completely different arrows.

One, arrow of ‘time’: an emergent of the ‘timelessness’.

Two, arrow of ‘entropy’: the ever increasing the action count.

 

In the example above (from state one to state three), it gained nothing but still paid with higher action count. Phenomenologically, this is viewed as ‘dissipation’, and thus the entropy has not much to do with the fundamental laws of physics.

 

On the other hand, the TOTAL action count of this universe defines the STATUS of this universe. So, this {TOTAL COUNT} must be the most important number in the BOOK of this universe.

 

How can we calculate this {TOTAL COUNT}?

In the G-string quantum gravity, the universe moves {from [here (now), now] to [here (next), next]} with quantum action {ħ}, and each action is one {quantum information}, the quantum-bit.

Then, the largest unit of this quantum information is {ħ C} in one unit of time.

Finally, the NUMBER of quantum ACTIONs per time-dimension in a unit of time is {1/ (ħ C)}.

 

So, the {TOATL quantum action COUNT} of this universe (TC) = {1/ (ħ C)} ^4 x T;

T, life time of universe; there are 4-time-dimensions.

So, TC = {1/ (ħ C) ^4} x T = 4.34/9.714 x 10^103 x 10^17

= 0.446 x 10 ^ 120

 

Planck’s constant   ħ = 1.0545718 × 10-34 m2 kg / s

 

The speed of light = 299 792 458 m / s = 2.99 x 10 ^ 8 m/s

 

So, (ħ C) ^ 4 = {(1.05 x 2.99) x (10 ^ (-34 + 8))} ^4 = 97.14 x 10 ^ (-104) = 9.714 x 10 (-103)

T (life time of universe, 13.799±0.021 billion years) = 4.34 x 10 ^17 s (second)

 

This universe thus far should have a {TOATL quantum action COUNT} in an order of 10^120.

 

Selection three: Cosmological Constant

 

Cosmology constant (Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space. A positive vacuum energy density resulting from a cosmological constant implies a negative pressure, and vice versa. In terms of Planck units, and as a natural dimensionless value, the cosmological constant, λ, is on the order of 10^−120 or 10^−122.

 

Thus far, the Cosmology constant (Λ) is a phenomenological parameter without a theatrical meaning, although it was ad hoc defined in the GR equation. Again, it cannot be derived with any mainstream quantum gravity theories. M-string theory cannot even determine its sign (being positive or negative).

 

In this G-string quantum gravity, Cosmology constant (Λ) is defined as the ‘SHARE’ per quantum action.

So, Cosmology constant (Λ) = {1/ (TOATL quantum action COUNT)}

= {1/( [1/ (ħ C) ^4] x T)}

= {1/0.446 x 10 ^ 120}

= 2.242 x 10^-120

In h-unit, Cosmology constant (Λ) ~ 3 x 10^−123

 

Section four: Conclusion

 

Now, quantum gravity, entropy and Cosmology constant (Λ) are linked together.

One, Quantum gravity: moving this universe from {[here (now), now] to [here (next), next]} with a quantum action ħ.

Two, the total quantum action count is manifested as entropy.

Three, the Cosmology constant (Λ) is the SHARE per quantum action in this quantum gravity.