BICEP2 and its implication


Theoretical Physicist Matt Strassler wrote, “This offered me an opportunity to hear some of the world’s leading experts talking about the recent measurement [BICEP2] and its potential implications (if it is correct, and if the simplest interpretation of it is correct). Alternative explanations of the experiment’s results were also mentioned. ( )


Indeed, there is some cautious about the accuracy of the ‘data’. In addition to data, there are two more ‘interpretations’ in the story.

One, B-mode = Primordial gravitational waves

Two, Primordial gravitational waves = inflation


For the ‘inflation’, it is only a ‘stage’ in this universe’s history, not the ‘structure’ of it. Thus, I will use the ‘structure’ to show that the BICEP2 data is good. Again, by using the Alpha-equation below.


Beta = 1/alpha = 64 ( 1 + first order mixing + sum of the higher order mixing)

           = 64 (1 + 1/Cos A(2) + .00065737 + …)

           =  137.0359 …

 A(2) is the Weinberg angle, A(2) = 28.743 degree 

 The sum of the higher order mixing = 2(1/48)[(1/64) + (1/2)(1/64)^2 + …+(1/n)(1/64)^n +…]    

                                                                  = .00065737 + … 


This formula has five important attributes.

  1. It matches the measured Alpha number to fourth digits (in fact, can be to any digits). The calculating accuracy of this formula can be checked by any 8th grader who knows no physics.
  2. It encompasses a very important physics parameter, the Weinberg angle.
  3. It encompasses an underlying physics framework, the Alpha-physics (based on the Weinberg angle and two numbers [64, 48]).
  4. With the Alpha-physics, both Cabibbo and Weinberg angles can be ‘derived’ ( ). Then, this equation is based only on two numbers (64, 48).
  5. It is a ‘structure’ constant, based only on two numbers (64, 48).


Now, without any ‘interpretation’, the BICEP2 has produced two data,

One, CMB Tensor To Scalar Ratio (r) is from 0.2 to 0.3

Two, Neff is about 4.0


Neff is a measurement about the number of neutrino species. The most pre-BICEP2 data showed it to be about 3.5, that is, there are either four species of neutrino or three with one sterile neutrino. Of course, most of scientists are waiting for more ‘data’ on this issue.


But, for the Alpha-physics above, this universe is ‘structured’ with two numbers (64, 48) only. That is, there are 64-dimensions while 48 of them are scalars (matter) and 16 are tensors (energy). The 48 are divided by two, matter and anti-matter, that is 24. The 24 are further divided into 3 generations with each having 8-dimensions (2 quarks with 3 colors each + 2 leptons).  Thus, Neff = 48/16 = 24/8 = 3 for the matter fields. Then, Neff = 4 if the dark energy is also included in its measurement.


Then, the Tensor To Scalar Ratio (r) = (64 -48)/48 = 0.33

Yet, the dark energy can also produce the E-mode in addition to the B-mode. Thus, the r ration can be rewritten as r = (64 -48)/64 = 0.25


Now, the Alpha-physics can be the ‘evidence’ for the BICEP2 announcement, before any additional data. BICEP2 data is correct.


For more detailed BICEP2 results, see   


Then, I would like to add three points.


One, the gravitational wave is the consequence of the General Relativity. Now, the B-wave is a feature of the ‘structure’ of this universe. That is, both of them are not special features of the inflation which is only a ‘stage’ in the history of this universe. Thus, the media excitement on this BICEP2 data as the confirmation of inflation is just hypes from some interest groups, without any physics-merit.


Two, before we know the ‘structure’ of the universe, we need ‘data’ to find out it. When the structure is known, it becomes the check sheet for checking the validity of the data, as everyone can see that the (64, 48) structure is fixed, not a prediction or a post-diction. Yet, this structure is the master key for all current open-questions (such as, dark matter, dark energy, etc., see ).


Three, the BICEP2 has probed the physics at the energy near the Planck scale, and the ‘structure’ analysis has showed that the SUSY played no role at all in BICEP2 data. That is, SUSY is not here (LHC, 8 Tev.) and is not there (BICEP2, near Planck). It will be a very confident bet for SUSY being at nowhere (see ).